The economic, social and ecological aspects of the rural area are of complex nature and have profound implications for sustainable development. The urbanization process emphasized during the last two centuries due to fast industrialization has become one of the global problems of humanity due to economic, social and cultural disparities, which characterize urban and rural civilization (Satterthwaite, 2007). Rural areas are large and isolated areas of an open country with low population density. Rural development in general is used to denote the actions and initiatives taken to improve the standard of living in non-urban neighborhoods, countryside, and remote villages. These communities can be exemplified with a low ratio of inhabitants to open space. Agricultural activities may be prominent in this case whereas economic activities would relate to the primary sector, production of foodstuffs and raw materials.
Even in European countries, rural area holds an important place in the history, civilization and national identity both by the means of spatial and demographic dimensions and the economic, social, cultural and ecological dimensions. Sustainable rural development is a multi dimensional concept which supposes an equitable and balanced development within the rural area, an increased level of social cohesion and inclusion, the assuming of responsibility for using natural resources and environmental protection (Bleahu, 2005). These objectives can be achieved through adequate public policies, which should trace the rural area population adjustment to economic, social and cultural changes in order to have a high quality of life according to current standards (Prus,2012, Spellerberg, 2006). In Nigeria, rural areas have undergone important economic, social land political transformations. Agriculture has reduced its importance in production, income and employment but has nevertheless remained a determining force in rural areas. The objectives of Nigeria rural development policy are aimed at increasing the vitality of agriculture and food production, strengthening local activities and local economy, increasing the number of jobs in rural areas, preserving the rural population and restoring a demographic balance, preserving natural resources and improving the quality of rural life (Pap and Eniko, 2012).
The future development of Nigeria cannot be accomplished without sustainable development within the rural areas. These areas possess Nigeria main natural values: They represent the cultural identity of the country and is an example of social unity. The base functions of the rural areas, economic, ecological and socio-cultural, represent the key dimensions of sustainable development. The industrialization phenomenon has become strongly significant during the second part of the 20thcentury, which led to diminishing the weight of population living in the rural areas and of agriculture to the gross domestic product. Nevertheless, the importance of the rural areas has not decreased on the contrary, it is enriched with new dimensions and has become an important theme of national and international policies.
The analysis of the development level of rural economy and quality of life in Nigeria offers the perspective of founding some coherent and realistic policies for sustainable rural development. The comparison between Nigeria and some of European developed countries and recently integrated countries offers the possibility of appreciating disparities, of establishing fundamental objectives, of monitoring the reached stadium in their accomplishment and of identifying the future development directions. Social economic characteristics have a major influence over the quality of life within the rural areas. Ensuring some services specific to modern civilization also conditions the quality of life. The demographic aspects of population within the rural areas ensure the continuity element of rural settlements. To these aspects, we may add a subjective component which cannot be quantified in models of economic development, connected to the profound attachment of an important part of population to traditional values of the rural areas, the specific culture and moral values (Borza, 2011).
In conclusion, there is need for provision of infrastructural facilities, services to aid rural economic activities and development potential in the study area. If all facilities are provided to the rural people it will reduced level of migration to urban area.
The need to empower the local people responds to the growing recognition that local people in developing countries lack control over resources and opportunity to participate in decision making processes. Unless rural people are empowered to participate in the development process, development efforts will only have partial positive effects if at all they have any positive effect. Nigeria is a country on the coast of West Africa, The Federal Republic of Nigeria as it is officially called has a population of 177.5 million people. (Halim, 2015). Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Its Capital city is Abuja located in the center of the nation, while Lagos is the primary port, economic hub and the largest city. All the states in the country consist of combination of rural and urban settings with majority of the population located in the rural areas. Due to remoteness of these communities, businesses find it hard to survive. Most of these rural dwellers engage in Agriculture. For many of these smaller remote communities, the residents have relied on forestry, fishing and other resource based jobs as a means to provide for the families.(Lymne, 2013). Each of these states in Nigeria has its unique characteristic, culturally, geographically and otherwise. The uniqueness of these areas inhibits the growth of rural development thus retarding the development of the economy, locally and at the global level. Some of these states have climatic challenge like drowses, flood and the like. The challenges experienced by these areas have been a barrier for the survival of rural area. The barriers also include: poor or no infrastructure or technology, no means of communication, lack of power supply, no market for the products and many others. To this, Lymne (2013) maintain that some communities are not accessible by paved road and others are not by road at all. Again, rural people in these areas often operate without a local bank and standard infrastructure (telephone lines, running water and transportation).
- What are the existing economic activities and development potential in the area?
- What are the factors militating against the implementation of development potentials in the area?
- Is there any significant impact of development potential distribution in the area ?
- What are the types of rural economic activities in the area?
The aim of the study is to examine the rural economic activities and development potential within the study area and to examine the problems and challenges of development in Ogbomoso.
- To examine socioeconomic characteristics of the resident in the study area.
- To examine the development potentials of the rural economy.
- To analyze resources distributed in Ogooluwa.
- To identify relationship between development potential and economic activities.
- To examine the factor responsible for the distribution of resources in the study area.
The study was carried out in Ogooluwa Local Government Area Ogbomoso, a rural area in the South West Province of Nigeria. The decision to study this area and this particular choice of topic was rooted from its historical status, which inspired to do research on development potential and economic activities of the area. One observation is that the problem with the current systems is that public institutions cannot attain a satisfactory level of autonomy to work with the rural people in ways that would promote better performance. It is a conscious effort that is needed to examine the development need of the state and Ogooluwa to be more specific.
The study deals with analysis of development potential, sustainable development in the rural area and the economic activities. The project would cover the area enclosed by Ogooluwa Local Government Area of Oyo State, working on three wards. (Lagbedu, Idewure and Iwoate). The study covers ten political wards in Ogooluwa Local government area Ogbomoso.
H0: There is no correlation between rural economic activities and development potential in
the study area.
The study was carried out in Ogooluwa Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The area is located at the north-east of oyo state. It lies between latitude 6 N0 and longitude 40 E of the greenwich meridian. Important villages in the area include Ajaawa, (headquarters of the local government area). Iwoate, Idewure, Ayetoro,Lagbedu, Otamakun, Opete Ojutaye, Ayede, Odooba. It has an area of 369km2 and a population of 65,184 at the 2006 census and the postal code of the area is 210. Ogo-Oluwa Local Government was created on the 3rd of May, 1989 by the then Military regime of General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida.The Local Government shares boundaries in the East with Ejigbo Local Government of Osun State. In the North with Ogo-Oluwa West Local Council Development Area and in the West with Oriire Local Government Area, in the South with Oyo East and Afijio Local Government Areas.
Ogooluwa local government areas, rural economy was based on yam flakes processing and Cassava (Manihot esculenta) processing into gari, Yam flakes etc. They also exract other food from cassava such as paki popularly known as fufu, white yam flour, etc processing. production is used for human food. Yam tubers are processed into various types of foods, including pounded yam, boiled yam, roasted or grilled yam, fried yam slices,yam balls, mashed yams, yam chips, and yam flakes. Fresh yam tubers are also peeled, chipped, dried and milled into flour that is used to prepare dough called Amala. Three rural communities (Lagbedu, Idewure and Iwoate). In Ogooluwa local government area of oyo state were chosen as the study locations.
The main occupation of the inhabitant is arable farming, tree crop farming, livestock also plays an important role. The main economic activities in ogolouwa local government area of oyo state base on Cassava and Yam Flakes etc.Cassava which as been the most important food crops, grown in tropical Africa for centuries. In Nigeria, cassava has assumed a permanent role as one of the major staple food crops, not only among he rural dwellers bu also the urban dwellers.
Ogooluwa Local Government Area of Oyo state with the local government headquarters at Ajaawa. Ogo-Oluwa local government area is located between the longitude of 3’51.18’ and 3’58.9’ East of Greenwich meridian and the Latitude 7’30.3’ and 7’40.2’ North of the equator with rainfall between 1500 and 2000mm and temperature between 23’C and 27’C Isotherms in January. It is situated at 233.2meters above sea level and the general elevation is between 178m and 220m above sea level (OYSADEP, 2001). The vegetation of the zone is derived savannah. The climatic and soil conditions of the study area favour the extensive production of food crops like cassava, yam, maize, pepper and tomatoes, to mention few. Ogo-Oluwa local government area is an extension block of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP).