- Background of Study
Transportation is a dynamic and essential facility for the exploitation or development of economic resources on a national or international scale. It allows articles or material to be conveyed form area of low utility to area of high utility by (Alan E. Branch, 1986). Transport continues to experience major changes so long as there’s the need and desire to move from one place to another (Tabok, 1970). The role of transport in promoting the social and economic development of any region or country cannot be overemphasized because transport remains an indispensable engine growth. The literature on transport and economic growth is replete with sufficient evidence of the two elements being positively related (Robinson et al 1961)
Transportation is a derived demand i.e. it is not demanded for its own purpose but to fulfill other. It creates valuable needs between region, economic activities and people, its importance reflect in economic, social, political and environmental aspect of our lives. Modern business, industry and trade are depending upon transport modes (road, rail, sea and air) and communication facilities.
While issues of safety and security have been before transport planners and managers for many years, it is only recently that physical security has become an over-riding issue. Concerns were already being raised before the Millennium, but the tragic events of 9/11,2001thrust the issue of physical security into public domain as never before and set in motion responses that are re-shaping transportation in other perspectives. In addition, threat to health, such as the spread of pandemics, present significant challenges to transport planning and operations. Because of the nature of transport systems, safety and security issue concerns the modes and the terminals. Each involves a different set of issues.
As locations where passengers and freight are assembled and dispersed, terminals have particularly been a focus of concern about security and safety. Because railway stations and airports are some of the most densely populated sites anywhere, crowd control and safety have been issues that have preoccupied managers for a long time. Access is monitored and controlled, and movements are channeled along pathways that provide safe access to and from platforms and gates.
In the freight industry, security concerns have been directed in two areas: worker safety and theft. Traditionally, freight terminals have been dangerous work places. With heavy goods being moved around yards and loaded onto vehicles using large mobile machines or manually, accidents are systemic. Significant improvements have been made over the years, through worker education and better organization of operations, but freight terminals are still comparatively hazardous. The issue of thefts has been one of the most severe problems confronting all types of freight terminals, especially where high value goods are being handled. Docks in particular, have been seen as places where organized crime has established control over local labor unions. Over the years access to freight terminals has been increasingly restricted, and the deployment of security personnel has helped control thefts somewhat.
In the light of the emergence of global supply chain, the emphasis in freight transport security is gradually shifting to a more comprehensive but complex approach including several dimensions and potential measures:
- Dimensions: Particularly it concerns the integrity of the cargo, the route and the information systems managing the supply chain.
- Measures: The set of procedures that can be implemented to maintain the integrity of the cargo, namely inspections, the security of facilities and personnel as well as of the data.
- The expected outcomes of these measures include:
- Reduced risk of disruptions of trade in response to security threats.
- Improved security against theft and diversion of cargo, with reductions in direct losses (cargo and sometime the vehicle) and indirect costs (e.g. higher insurance premiums)
- Improved security against illegal transport of black market goods such as counterfeits, narcotics and weapons, and of persons.
- Reduced risk of evasion of duties and taxes
- Increased confidence in the international trading systems by current and potential shippers of goods.
- Improved screening process (cost and time) and simplified procedures.
Still, in spite of the qualitative benefits, the setting and implementation of security measures come at a cost that must be assumed by the shippers and eventually by the consumers. It has been estimated that an increase of 1% in the costs of trading internationally would cause a decrease in trade flows of in the range of 2 to 3%. Security based measures could increase total costs between 1% and 3%. Additionally, the impacts are not uniformly assumed as developing countries, particularly export-oriented economies, tend to have higher transport costs. Security measures can affect them in a greater fashion.
Airports have been the focus of security concerns for many decades. High-jacking aircraft came to the fore in the 1970s, when terrorist groups in the Middle East exploited the lack of security to commander planes for ransom and publicity. Refugees fleeing dictatorships also found taking over aircraft a possible route to freedom. In response, the airline industry and the international regulatory body, ICAO, established screening procedures for passengers and bags.This process seems to have worked in the short run at least, with reductions in hijackings, although terrorists changed their tactics by placing bombs in un-accompanied luggage and packages, as for example in the Air India crash of Ireland in 1985 and the Lockerbie, Scotland, crash of Pan Am 103 in 1988.
The growth in passenger traffic and the development of hub and spoke networks placed a great deal of strain on the security process. There were wide disparities in the effectiveness of passenger screening at different airports, and because passengers were being routed by hubs, the numbers of passengers in transit through the hub airports grew significantly. Concerns were being raised by some security experts, but the costs of improving screening and the need to process ever larger numbers of passengers and maintain flight schedules caused most carriers to oppose tighter security measures.
The situation was changed irrevocably by the event of September 11, 2001. The US government created the Department of Homeland Security which in turn established a Transportation Security Authority (TSA) to oversee the imposition of strict new security measures on the industry. Security involves many steps, from restricting access to airport facilities, fortifying cockpits, to the more extensive security screening of passengers. Screening now involves more rigorous inspection employs biometric identification, which at present involves checking fingerprints, but in the future may include retinal scans and facial pattern recognition.
A new system, the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System, (CAPPS II), requires more personal information from travelers when they book their flights, which is used to provide a risk assessment of each passenger. Passengers considered as high risk further screened.
The imposition of these measures has come at a considerable cost. In the US alone, the additional airport security is at a cost of $6 billion. A significant factor has been the integration of screeners into the federal workforce, with important increases in salaries and training costs. The purchase of improved screening machines and the re-designing of airport security procedures have been important cost additions. These measures have also had a major influence on passenger throughputs. Clearing security has become the most important source of delays in the passenger boarding process. Passengers are now expected to arrive 2 hours before departure at the terminal in order to clear security.
Security issues have had a negative effect on the air transport industry. As reviewed above not only have costs increased, but delays and inconveniences to passengers as well. Business travel, the most lucrative sub-market for the regular airlines, has suffered particularly sharp declines. Anecdotal evidence suggests that these passengers are switching to other modes for shorter trips so as avoid the time delays and aggravation caused by the security process and to executive jets for longer trips
1.2 Statementof Problem
The relationship between transport safety and security has become increasingly important in Nigeria aviation industry. This industry is mainly influenced by both the internal and external factors in the country.In Nigeria aviation industry, using Lagos International airport as a case study, we found out that some of the problems facing transport safety and security are linked to the poor financial response on the part of the government, poor managerial skill on the leadership of the sectors, lack of access to some basic amenities e.g. good road, constant electricity supply, good environment, well equipped security personnel e.t.c.
Transport in the country is the gateway into the country and every sector of the economy that caters for high net worth of individuals in business, government, foreigners and professionals whose activities impact in no small measure on the economy. travellers are faced with security and safety challenges due to poor checks of passengers who might want to commit terror attack at the airport or some passenger who want to involve themselves in smuggling of dangerous goods.These problems are what the researches of this project will be addressing and also suggest several measures to put in place in order to address those challenges.
1.3 Research Question
- What are the need for transport safety and security measures in the study area (MMIA)
- What are the impact of transport safety and security measures on the socio economic development
- What are the factors motivating adoption of transport safety measures in Muritala Muhammed International Airport Lagos
1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of transport safety and security measures in the Nigeria aviation industry.
The specific objectives of this project are to:
- Evaluate the need for transport safety and security measures in the study area (MMIA).
- Analyses the impact of transport safety and security measures on the socio-economic development in Nigeria.
- Examine the factors motivating adoption of transport safety measures in MuritalaMuhammed International airport Lagos.
In pursuit of the objectives of identifying the effectives and workability of transport safety and security measure in Nigeria aviation industry.
Hi: There is no significant relationship between transport safety and security measure in Nigeria.
Hii: There is significant relationship between safety and security measures.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study of transport safety and security measure is hoped to be of benefits not only to students, businessmen, government, passengers, community and transporters but the whole society.
The study also helps to highlight the problems associated with transport safety and securities and to make use of the analysis to improve the working situations thereby minimizing the problems of the safety in transport system.
1.7 Scope of the Study
To achieve the objective of this study, this is basically focused on and limited to Nigeria Aviation industry: MuritalaMuhammed Airport (MMA2, GAT). This is motivated by the fact that the information about the safety and security of the organization are accessible. The choice of this organization is based on the activities carried out within the organization and the services rendered.
1.8 Definition of Terms
- TSSM: Transport Safety and Security Measures
- GAT: General Airport Terminal
- MMIA: MuritalaMuhammed International Airport
- TSA: Transportation Security Authority
- CAPPS II: Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System