1.1 Background of the Study
The issue of which people depend on road transport in most of Nigerian cities increasingly recognised as an essential component of sustainable development of transportation. The merit of transportation in the third world society can not be over-emphasised especially road transport. It is however, a system in which people convey from one locality to another. When looking into the society of many Nigerian Towns and Cities, it will be discovered that about 70% of Nigerian conveyed from one place to another through the means of commercial Buses and Cars (World Bank, 1994).
The increasing population and expanding urban centre has been commensurated with the increase in car ownership rate as well as Motor Park in different corners of our Cities and Towns. This had made possible the increasing trip to commercial area by the people which has resulted to expansion and increase in number of Motor Park in our environment. According to Taylor and Ong (1995), people who use public transit spend much more time commuting than people who use owned car. This is as a result of different in opinion of the people toward the use of Motor Park as their origin and destination point.
In Nigeria, because of time spend in motor park; some people prefer the use of road side boarding as an awaiting point to join spacious vehicle to their destination (FRSC, 1997).
Beside this, public transport offers an alternative to the private motor vehicle. By implication, greater patronage of public motor park could lead to increase in motor park demand and reduction in private vehicle usage. Kain (1992) introduced motor park as a possible explanation for urban poverty. He stressed that minority workers who do not have access to private car are those set of people who are require to be found in motor park.
Harris (2001) looks on the issue of motor park at a view from the supply and demand side of labour market. He emphasised spatial variation and travel mode in job access as interested two issues when measuring job accessibility. He now deduced that since job accessibility without considering the origin and destination of the spatial distribution of workers can generate a disorder picture of transportation (road) service of such area.
The spatial requirement of motor park will equally determine the time in travel of passenger because of the number of vehicle that can be occupied at a particular time. The frequency at which people patronise motor park is different from time to time and from place to place. This depends on the even distribution of the people, location of the commercial area etc. (Australia road Guide to Traffic Engineering practice, 1999).
The spatial availability of motor park in different Nigerian cities are very small which has prompted the use of road side as a routine b y different commercial vehicular operators. This practice of motor park system has different implication on road transport service such as emergence of traffic hold up, unnecessary dumping of waste materials by the passengers which will at the end result to refuse dump if proper care is not taken. (Azeez, 2006).
Under these circumstances, however, a limited number of studies have so far focused on the spatial and temporal dimension of commuting inequality between car park and the use of public transit. Much is know about the presence of substantial spatial variations in commuting time within a metropolitan area (Shen, 2000). But little is known about the potential spatial characteristics of motor park when compare the user distance and time taken in trip.
In transport management, spatial- temporal characteristics of Motor Park cannot be ruled out due to high demand of motor park for safety of life and property. As a result of this, required people sees motor park as the place where more time is consuming when compare to total time taken on road. This has brought about the use of commercial street park as an alternative means of the origin.(World bank, 1994).
It is for this reason, that efforts are been made from time to time to ensure that motor parks situation in terms of space and time taken in trips are capable of supporting and promoting social, economic and political prosperity of the user. It is therefore not surprising to note or observe that spatio-temporal characteristics have gained prominence in awareness campaigns to sustainable transportation system.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problems of transportation in the world today have been an issue agitating the mind of people concerned. Especially road transportation is one of the major transport system used by the people of the Third world. (World Bank, 1994). In this third world countries such as many Africa countries are usually battled with the issue of road transport facilities such as motor park.
In the Republic of China, commercial Buses are facing trip problem as a result of unemployment in which lesser commuters are found in trip making. This is because china is experiencing world economic crisis. Also the dropping in the price of crude oil in the world market has brought about increase in the number of private owned cars on the major road of the cities. Other factors include; population growth, global economic crisis among others. (Chinese Ministry of Transportation, 2008)
Also, in the full motorist cities such as Adelaide of Australia, motor park is a place in which the expectation of the majority is to see only the low income earners or the low class labourers at the motor parks and less concerned is given to the operation of the motor parks. (South Australia Department of Transport, Urban planning and The Arts, 2001).
In most of West Africa countries, civil war has contributed to the problem of motor park system. In Abidjan, the political capital of Cote D’ivoire, most motor park have been burnt during the cause of the civil war, also the tracking sensor of the government motor parks in Cocody Dallas and Thriesville. These have resulted in the poor delivery of the service by the transport system of the territory (Empo Matin, 2005).
In Nigeria, the spatial structure of the motor park is very limited to occupy the numerous commercial Buses and Cars available for operation. This has led to utilisation of road side as the point operation in which Osogbo is also experienced.
The location of the motor parks in the city is another problem faced by the people because of the time taken to reach the parks. These cost them extra expenditure to reach those motor parks.
Limited in the number of motor park in relation to increase in population and uncontrolled spontaneous expansion of the city.
The spatial analysis of the existing motor parks is very small which the motorist to utilise road side as parks and this has resulted to traffic congestion in the affected areas.
Land pollution is another critical problem caused by the users of the road side as their commercial motor park. Since passengers after eating and drinking usually disposed the waste materials on the ground through the window of their respective Buses in which at the end resulting to land pollution and water pollution (drainage).
Critical study of the city motor parks shows that some of the motor parks are located at the road junctions such as Ola-iya Area which usually causes traffic conflict especially road traffic congestion.
The rate at which noise is generated along the road where motor parks are found is uncontrollable which picture the city as a noisy city rather than be one of the coolest cities in the South West zone of the country.
In Osogbo of Osun State Capital City, the location of motor park to ease the movement of people in and out of the city can not be ruled out in the daily transport demand. It is however discovered that there is an uneven distribution of both standard and less standard motor park in which such distribution has different effect on aesthetic, organisation and economic operation of the metropolis.
The state capital which comprises of two Local Government Areas of Olorunda and Osogbo Local Government Areas is affected with the public motor park system due to spontaneous growth of urbanisation and commercial activities. As a result of these, commercial motorists are now utilizing road side for their daily operation. This has contributed to continuous record of daily traffic hold up within the city.
It could be understood that the Osogbo under the Ministry of Works And Transport has only the record of registered motor parks such as;
- Oke fia Motor Park (at Oke Fia)
- Power line Motor Park (at power line)
- Ayetoro Motor Park (at Pepsi cola)
- Ayepe Motor park (at Oke Ayepe)
Despite the number of registered motor parks, as a result of urbanisation, there is an increase in the number of road side public / commercial parks. (State Ministry of Works and Transport, 2002)
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the identification of motor parks in the study area?
- What are the physical characteristics of existing motor parks?
- What are the operational procedures of the motor parks?
- What are the determinations of socio-economic characteristics of the users of existing motor parks?
- What are the problems facing existing motor parks?
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The main aim of the project is to analyse critically the characteristics of existing motor parks in Oshogbo with a view of creating functional mobility system for the commuters.
In order to achieve the above aim, the following objectives were pursued.
- To identify motor parks in the study area.
- To examine the physical characteristics of existing motor parks.
- To identify operational procedures of the motor parks.
- Determination of socio-economic characteristics of the users of existing motor parks.
- Identification of problems facing existing motor parks.
Hypothesis was formulated for the research work so as to ensure proper classification. The hypothesis was formulated based on the objectives of the study. It stated thus:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the motor park users (motorists) and the level of function of the motor park.
Hi: There is significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the motor park users (motorists) and the level of function of the motor park.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The problem of Motor Park emerges due to the fact that less concern and considerations were set aside to motor parks during early development of Osogbo metropolis. Due to the fact that Osogbo had not dreamt of Osun state capital until 1991, there was no proper arrangement the city. (Osun State Ministry of Transport, 2002)
To this end, no arrangement was made for motor park in response to feature urbanisation. Also, the increase in number of business men in the city over the recent years have placed high pressure on the need for spatial and accessible motor parks for the purpose of economic growth of the metropolis. (Osun State Ministry of Transport, 2002)
There is a need to embark on this kind of research to verify whether the perception of the users on the quality of motor park operational procedure are important and required to consider in make easy trip available for all the users irrespective of their location. Also, there is a need to know the detail in formation on how people make trip from one place to another and how easy and support them derived toward the progress of their economy.
Only of long time spent at various motor in which people find difficult to spend. Therefore they prefer go to the outskirt of the city for cheap travel fare which usually results to tremendous reporting kidnapping cases. However it is important to enumerate the reasons people risk their life rather than originate their trip from motor parks.
Finally, the study is important to know whether the goal of motor park development for the well being of the people could be achieved or not.
The outcome of this research work is expected to formulate the strategies for the improvement the public motorisation system of the study area.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study deals with motor parks in Osogbo of Osun state. It covers two (2) Local Government Areas that form the city of Osogbo. It addresses the problem faced by the existing motor parks. Reasons behind the use of road side by the motorists for the operation as well as problem emanating from the activities.
Although Osogbo comprises of different areas like, Ola-iya, Onward, Ayetoro, Igbona, Isale-Aro, Oja-Oba, Oke-Fia, Ota-Efun etc, but this research work only covers available motor parks by the use of certain criteria such as location characteristics, management procedure, number of passengers loaded per day, spatial analysis and number of Buses and Cars in the motor parks at peak hours.
Efforts toward provisional solution will also be addresses to reduce the geometric increase of problems of commercial motor park over the transport services.
The research work was affected by some constraints like inadequate finance, uncooperative attitude of the respondent especially the commercial motor vehicle operators and the management officials. The government officials were not ready to supply information relating to the research work. Therefore, the researcher ensures that the questionnaires cut across all major areas that was stated in this project using random sample technique in the motor parks.
1.9 Definition of Operational Terms
- Motor Park: is an area in the countryside with places to stay, restaurants and other services for people who are travelling by car.
- Commuters: is used to describe something that is used by people who regularly travel between home and work, for example a place that they live, or a method of travel.
- Mobility: is the ability to move between different levels in society or employment.