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SLT00127 - ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION USING DOSIMETER IN AN X-RAY ROOM IN LAUTECH TEACHING HOSPITAL


CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

In radiation processing dosimetry is used to quantify the energy deposited in a material or absorbed by a human from radiation sources.Different dosimetry systems are used for different purposes in industry andresearch irradiation facilities, which have different requirements for dose determinations (Charles and Thomas, 2005).Radiation safety standards and issues involving the radiationprotection of humans against radiation exposure have their own 2dosimetrymetrology.Radiationdosimetry is a branch of physical science exploring differentmethods for the quantitative determination of energy, which is deposited in agiven material by ionizing radiation, either through direct or indirect exposure.Dosimetry deals with determinations and calculations of quantities (dose) thatdescribe the energy absorbed in a material and to some extent its rate of deposition(dose rate). Dosimetry determinations that are performed by exposing adosimeter to a radiation source help in evaluating the radiation-induced effects,physical, chemical, and/or biological, on an irradiated material (Charles and Thomas, 2005).

To assure that the desired radiation effects (biological, chemical, and/orphysical) are achieved and that the irradiation process is performed safely,validation and process control procedures are implemented. Process controlsrely on the establishment of a relationship between the source parameters andthe absorbed dose in an irradiated object (for isotropic radioactive source irradiators:dwell time, position in the source rack, and conveyance speed; foraccelerator s2ources: beam voltage, beam current, scanning width, scanneduniformity and conveyance speed). Absorbed dose and dose distribution is inferred from determinations made with a suitable dosimetry system having some level of accuracy and precision (Angela et al., 2010).

For over one hundred years, the usage of ionizing radiation has grownspectacularly over the world, becoming an invaluable tool in diagnosis and treatment of diseases.Although the radiation doses involved in medical diagnostic radiology are relatively small,increasing the number of radiological procedures applied population makes risks becomingincreasingly high.Th2e quality control techniques in radiological practice have to ensure an adequate systemof protection for people exposed to X-radiation. These techniques form part of a qualityassurance program for radiological examinations and are designed to correct problems relating toequipment and radiological practices, to obtain radiological images (informations) of highquality and to reduce the unnecessary exposures. In such a quality assurance program in medicaldiagnostic radiology, the medical physicist has a major role to assure the proper functioning ofthe equipment and work methodologies and to constantly seek to obtain a sensible benefit-riskreport in radiological procedures (Chen, 2014).

Evaluation with a good accuracy of radiation dose in radiological procedures is of greatimportance in radiation protection. The Monte Carlo simulation technique of radiation transportand of dose depositions applied for these radiological investigations can achieve this goal.TL dosimetry is a special technique used to assess radiation dose, that can be applied bothin individual dosimetry and monitoring the radiation environment.Secondary radiation produced simultaneously with the primary radiation emitted by an X-raytube, do not contribute to the form2ation of beneficial radiological image, but ratherdeteriorates the quality of this information by reducing contrast and lack detail. Therefore, it isrequired ongoing monitoring of the secondary radiation, which is parasitic in nature and harmfulfor radiological image.The check of the physical parameters of X-ray devices and the quality control HVL testof X-radiation are an integral part of quality assurance program aimed at detecting errors inradiological practice and to achieve high-quality radiological images and low doses to patients (Lin, 1991).

1.2       Significant of the Study

            The survey locations are within a public institution where students, staff and the general public2 are found. The institution stores some chemicals, reagent, equipment and mineral elements in addition to drug, granite and other building materials that may contribute to background radiation. There is need for survey to know the level of radiation with reference to the maximum permissible level in order to find out whether it calls for the attention of regulatory control agencies to make recommendations based on findings.

1.3 Scope of the Study

            The scope of this paper is to measure and analyse the dose of radiation workers at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso for protection and radiation safety in the medical sector.

1.4       Aim and Objectives

1.4.1   Aim

The aim of this research work is to assess the environment by measuring the radiation before, during, and after X-ray operation on human, using dosimeter.

1.4.2    Objectives

  • 2To access theenvironmental radiation dose received by radiographers
  • To compare the results obtained to what is expected to make necessary recommendations
  • To minimize the health effect of radiologist due to radiation
  • To access the background radiation of the x-ray room
  • To know and make sure dose of radiation workers Lautech teaching hospital are within safe limits and in accordance with applicable regulations