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SLT00076 - ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA


ABSTRACT

Aframomum melegueta, also known as the grains of paradise, it is a high valueproduct spice found mostly in West Africa. Its seed have a wide range of uses in theproduction of items and drinks. This study explained some important antimicrobial activities of thepod extract ofAframomum melegueta. The Aframomum melegueta,  were pulverized and the sample was stored in abottle at ambient temperature. With 500g of the pod soaked with ethanol, ethylacetate and n-hexanein a different sample bottle for some time andfiltrate obtained and dried and heated until a paste was formed.

Antibacterial activity of Aframomum melegueta was tested on Serratia marsescens (sm), Escherichia coli (Ec), Klebsiella pneumonae (Kb), Pseudomonas spp(Sp). and Staphilococcus aureus (Sa).

The phytochemical analysis carried out on Aframomum melegueta revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponin, antraquinones, cardiacglycoside, flavonoid, terpenoids and phenol.  The  presence  of  these  phytochemcials support  the  use  of  this  plant  as  antimicrobial  agent.  Aframomum melegueta can therefore be used as antimicrobial agent against the groups of Enterobacteriaceae tested.

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND STUDY OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA

Medicinal plants are being grown in temperature climate and there probably a great deal more with properties not yet discovered. These have been in use for treating alloxam, cardiovascular health in wild, and ailment such as mouth ulcers and sore throat. The industrials and local uses of medicinal plants are many and varied. These range from traditional medicines, herbal tea and healthy food such nutriceuticals to galericals, phytopharmaceuticals and industrially produced pharmaceuticals economically. Medicinal plants and herbs contain substances known to modern and ancient civilization for their healing properties until development of chemistry and particularly the synthesis of organic compound in 19thcentury; medicinal plants were sole source of active principles capable of curing man’s ailments. Even now, herbs continue to be important to people that do not have access to modern medicine (Okwu 1997). Medicinal plants also constitutes as a source of valuable foreign exchange for most developing countries, as the source of drugs the world market for plant derived chemical pharmaceuticals, fragrances flavor and color ingredients exceed several billions dollars per year (WHO, 1998). In several industrialized societies, plant derived description drugs constituents and implement. In the maintenance of health and medicinal plants and integral compounds of research developments in the pharmaceutical industries such as focus on the isolation and direct use of active medicinal constituents or on the development of semi synthetic drug (WHO, 1998).

Medicinal plants research plays a crucial role in documenting the traditional healthcare practice of many countries of the world. Many developing countries of the world have decided to integrated traditional medicines into their primary healthcare delivery system. This integration is hanged on the vast resourcesand potential of their forests which are sources of cheap and valuable drugs for the people in China, about 500/0 of their total medicinal consumptionis attributed to traditional tribal medicines (Okpara 2006). Aframomum meleguetais a spice native to tropical West Africa. In the 14th century, traders from West Africa carried the spice across the desert to sell in Italy and Tripoli. The Italians called it “Caribbeans Grains of Paradise Capsule” which is herbaceous because of the value of the product, and the secrecy of the country of its origin. Europe acquired a taste for the spice as a substitute for real pepper (Enti 1999). In North Africa the extract of the pepper, mixed with other ingredient like honey, peanuts, almonds and butter was used in after dinner coffee. The spice is also used to flavor rum, culinary, reason (due to the pungency of the seed) and brand. In Ghana, the seed are widely used in spicing meat, sauces, soups and mixed with other herbs for the treatment of the general body pain and rheumatism (Okpara 1998).

Furthermore, an increasing reliance on the use of medicinal plants in industrial societies has been traced to the extraction of the development of several drugs and these plants as from traditional been used as natural herb medicine perhaps the best known examples of traditional medicine differing in concepts and protocols are as well. Development system such as acupuncture medicine that have been used widely to conserved human health in China and India. About 1,500 herbal preparations are now in used according to a recent survey in member state of the China Union. Herbal preparation are popular and of significance in primary healthcare in Germany, Netherlands, France and Belgium. Developed in recent times are turning medicinal systems that involved the use of tradition medicinal differing in concepts and protocols as well as developed systems such as acupuncture medicine that have been used widely to conserved human health in China and India. The popularity of healthcare and plant derived product have been traced to their increasing public cost in the daily maintenance of personal health and wellbeing (Okwu 1997).

Developed countries in recent times are turning medical systems that involve the use of herbal drugs and remedies. Examples include beauty oriented therapeutically which are skin tissue regenerators, anti-wrinkling agents and anti-ageing creams. The knowledge about medicinal plants and their use promote policy and legal reforms; involved local communities in effort to reduced dependency on world resources and genetic alternative income opportunities from the rural population perspectives, the traditional medicines promotes human resources development in medicinal plants. Middles part of the tube (open tubular column). The difference in rates of movement through the medium are calculated to different retention times of the sample.

  • CHARACTERIZATION OF AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA EXTRACTS

Aframomum melegueta is an herbaceous perennial plant native to swampy habitats along the West African coast. Its trumpet-shaped, purple flowers develop into 5- to 7-cm long pods containing numerous small, reddish-brown seeds.

The pungent, peppery taste of the seeds is caused by aromatic ketones; e.g., (6)-paradol (systematic name: 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-decan-3-one). Essential oils, which are the dominating flavor components in the closely related cardamom, occur only in traces.

The stem at times can be short and usually shows signs of scars and fallen leaves. The average leaves are usually 35 cm in length and 15 cm wide, with a well-structured vascular system. The flowers of the herbaceous plant are described as "handsome" aromatic, with an orange-colored lip and rich pinkish-orange upper part. The fruits contains numerous, small, golden red-brown seeds.

 

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

            To identify new compound that has not been in existence or been extensively studied and to create a synthetic prototype of the new compound.

1.5       AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Aim

  • To identified and characterize some pure compounds from the seed extract of Aframomum melegueta.

Objectives

  • Extraction Aframomum meleguetapods using N-hexane, Ethyl acetate and Ethanol based on their polarity respectively.
  • Concentration of the extract using rotary evaporator.
  • Phytochemicals activities of pods extract of Aframomum melegueta.
  • Antimicrobial activities of the pods extract of afromomum melegueta.