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            Nicotine is one of the major lifestyle factors influencing the health of human beings. Nicotine is a complex milieu possessing an array of free radicals namely hydroxyl, peroxyl, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals It is generally accepted that the large number of oxidants contained in nicotine induces adverse effects on tissues by causing oxidative stress. This study investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha on the oxidative stress parameters in nicotine induced rats

            A total number of eighteen (18) Wistar rats weighing 200-250g. The eighteen (18) animals were divided into two groups of 6 rats each (n=6).Group 1( Control group) were fed with normal feed and water ad libitum for six weeks. Group 2(Nicotine group) were fed with normal feed and water ad libitum with 1mg/kg bw of nicotine administered orally using oral cannula for 8weeks. Group 3 (Nicotine and extract) were fed with normal nicotine for the first five weeks and 200mg/kg bw Bridelia micrantha leaf extract for another three weeks.

       During this period of experimental design, water and food intake were taken daily and body weight weekly. On the last day, rats were anaesthetized using sodium pentobarbitone after an overnight fast and sacrificed. Blood sample was collected through cardiac puncture. The blood samples were centrifuged at 3000rpm for about 15minutes and the supernant plasma was used for the assay of Malonidialdehyde (MDA), Glucose-6-phosphte dehydrogenase (G6PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) using enzymatic kit method. Data were expressed as  (mean ± SEM). One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the mean values of variance. A p value of less than 0.05 (p<0.05) was considered statistically significant.

             GSH was significantly decreased in nicotine group (p<0.05) when compared with control (0.6085±0.01804 vs 0.4335±0.0195). GPX was also significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared with control (13.4990 ±1.6310 vs 9.4303±1.6218) and GSSG was also significantly decreased (p<0.05). However, treatment of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha decreases (GSH, GPX and GSSG) when compared with Wistar rats orally administered with nicotine (p<0.05). However, there was a significant increase (p>0.05) in MDA when compared nicotine and control group (7.3312±0.4960 vs 9.4250 ± 1.1871).  GSH and GSSG ratio was found to be lower in animals induced with nicotine (p<0.05) when compared with control groups (1.00879 ± 0.04488 vs 0.7226 ±0.02826). Administration of bridelia micrantha leaf extract ameliorate the level of the oxidative stress parameters (p>0.05) when compared with the nicotine group.

            In conclusion, this study shows that administration of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha has an antioxidative effect on some oxidative stress parameters caused by nicotine administration in male Wistar rats.

Key words: Nicotine, Bridelia micrantha, oxidative parameters



1.0       Introduction

            Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder, characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from absolute or relative insulin deficiency (Genuth, et al., 2003). There are a number of different causes of diabetes but by far the majority of cases are classified as either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.  Chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. However, one of the major contributing factors to diabetes is insulin resistance. Nicotine consumption has been linked to increased central adiposity. This increase in central adiposity may contribute to insulin resistance and diabetes (Chilero, et al., 2008).

            Many research studies demonstrated that type 2-diabetes mellitus patients have increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative stress Oxidative stress has been recently recognized as a key mechanism in insulin resistance which result to diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is defined by excess endogenous oxidative species, which both damage cells and manipulate signal pathway (Sies, 2016). Reactive species, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical ions (Schrieber, 2014), are the agents of oxidative stress and are produced at low physiological levels mostly in the mitochondria and peroxisomes. Increased oxidative stress appears to be a deleterious factor leading to insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance, and ultimately, type 2 diabetes. (Evans, et al., 2003; Shah, et al., 2007).

            The term of medicinal plants include a various types of plants used in herbalism and some of these plants have a medicinal activities. These medicinal plants consider as a rich resources of ingredients which can be used in drug development and synthesis. Bridelia micrantha is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The genus Bridelia is made up of about 60 species scattered throughout Asia, Africa and Australia (Rashid, et al., 2000).             They are used medicinally in the treatment of many different ailments such as cancer, anaemia, constipation,cough etc. B. ferruginea Benth is used in African traditional medicine as a decoction of the stem back to treat diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal disorders, gynecological disorders (including sterility), and rheumatic pains (Onoja, et al., 2014).  A decoction of the leaves is used to treat diabetes. This plant mainly shows antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, and anti HIV activities. This study is to investigate anti oxidative effect of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha leaf in nicotine fed rats.

1.1       AIM

            The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha leaf on some oxidative stress parameters in insulin resistant rats.


  • To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha on oxidised glutathione
  • To determine the effect of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha on glutathione dehydrogenase
  • To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha on Melanoaldehyde (MDA),
  • To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Bridelia micrantha on reduced glutathione.ae most addictive chemicals used med life-style.