1.1 Background to the study
Amongst the occupants of the Northern part of the present day Ondo state are the Akoko people, this set of people were classified as the Northern Yoruba in Northern Nigeria during the British conquest and rule proudly called Pax Britannica. Categorized with Ilorin, most of Igbomina, part of Ibolo, the Okun Yoruba and the Northern most Ekiti1. The area spans from Ondo state to Edo sate in Southwest Nigeria. Akoko land takes a large percentage of the local government in Ondo state. Out of the present eighteen local government councils it takes four namely Akoko north east, Akoko North West, Akoko southeast, Akoko Southwest as well as the Akoko Edo local government area of Edo state2.
Akoko became one of the few Yoruba clans with no distinct dialect of their own, major Akoko settlements includes Oka, Ikare, Ikun, Arigidi, Ogbagi, Okeagbe, Ikaram, Ibaram, Iyani, Akungba, Erusu, Ajowa, Akuna, Gedegede, Isua, Iboropa, Irun, Iye, Afin, Igbashi, Sosan, Ipesi, Etioro, Ayegunle and Oyin. In addition to this group are several other autonomous communities3. With a population of about 815,360 people as at 2011 Akoko region comprises about 40 small towns, predominately situated in rock areas of Ondo state. The rocky terrain nevertheless may have helped the region to become a melting part of sort, with different culture coming from the North, Eastern and Southern Yoruba towns and beyond. The earth crusts are well watered by constant rainfall between May and September of every year, also there are small rivers and streams in Akoko land. The most important of the stream are the Okota river which flow from the hill outcrop from Ogbagi to Arigidi road, the Otagala river that flows across Arigidi to Okeagbe. Other significant rivers are Itapako in Isua, Owon and Ajan along Oba- Ikun road. These rivers usually get reduced in volume during the dry season and no upsurge during the raining season4.
Predominantly large scale farming and teaching are the traditional occupation of the community. In contemporary time, military, policing and Para military are common denominator of Akoko community. Akoko is popularly known as home of education and has the second largest number of professors in individual, Oba Akoko is famously referred to as the gateway of Akoko and presently an area council, also Akunu Akoko shares border with Kogi state, they are known in education, hard work, diligence, civilization and prominent experience in politics. Ikare Akoko is referred to as the largest city in Akoko, with a high range of ICT resource centre where its people have opportunity to connect with other individual5. From the Akoko clan, notable people are known across Nigeria to have filled prominent position such as the seat of the State government, Inspector general of police, Central bank government and chief justice.
One thing that is common to every society no matter the nature of the society, whether primitive or modern, simple or complex is development and modernization. one of the easiest way on determining the degree of advancement in any community is through the thorough examine of the changes that has occurred over a certain period of time in such community. The defining features would include political, cultural, economic and social aspect of life within the community.
Socio-economic growth and development generally refers to sustained or concrete actions of policy makers and communities aimed at promoting the standard of living and economic health of a specific area, such actions the development of human capital, critical infrastructure, regional competitiveness, health, safety, literacy and other infrastructure6.
The term socio-economic development denotes the combination of social and economic factors leading to development in the given area. Socio-economic activities are interwoven; it examines the relationship between social and economic factors within a society, refers to the arts, customs, lifestyle and norms in relation to economic activity as its affects and is shaped by social processes.
With this background, this work intends to expose the social- economic growth and development in Ogbagi community in Akoko North local government area.
1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study
Ogbagi community in Akoko is among the few known areas in Nigeria. Despite the evolutional occurrences in this community scanty and few unpublished works exist on this community. This work intends to produce necessary information on the socio-economic growth and development of Ogbagi community Akoko North L.G.A., Ondo state in the 20th century.
The objectives of this work are to:
- Examine the origin and establishment of Ogbagi as a community in Akoko, Ondo State.
- Discuss the economic, political, socio-cultural activities and development in Ogbagi community during the colonial rule.
- To review the economic, political, socio-cultural development of Ogbagi community in the post-colonial era.
- Discuss the prospects and challenges faced by the people of Ogbagi community.
1.3 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study focuses on the socio-economic growth and development of Akoko north L.G.A in the 20th century. The scope of the study spans through from the origin of Ogbagi to its present state as a community. The study is structure into four chapters. Chapter one intend to introduce the background to the study, discuss the aims and objectives, scope and limitations, methodology and problems, significance of the study as well as review of relevant literatures.
Chapter two discusses the origin and socio economic activities of Ogbagi people by providing information about the name “Ogbagi”, geographical location of the place .political organization and socio-cultural and economic practices of the pre-colonial Ogbagi inhabitant.
Chapter three is designed to bring to fore the British colonial administration and development in Akoko land, exposing the colonial operations in this area as well as the socio economic changes in Ogbagi during this period.
Chapter four is set finally to give a general account on growth and development contributed and or attained in the post-colonial era, prospects and challenges, summary and conclusion including a map showing a visual representation of Ogbagi community.
1.4 Significance of the Study
- The socio economic development of Ogbagi community is necessary for assessment because it would serve as a reference to the development of other neighboring communities around Ogbagi area.
- This research work would enhance knowledge of the general public more importantly the inhabitant of Ogbagi community on the growth and development considering happenings that unfolds from time to time.
- This work would be relevant to any student or person who wishes to learn more about Ogbagi community.
- Like an Ethiopian proverbs “He who learns, teaches”. This research would add to the existing works on the socio-economic growth and development of Ogbagi community.