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FST00306 - SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF PECTIN FROM TWO DIFFERENT FRUIT ON PAW-PAW JUICE


CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
    • Background of the Study

 Fruits are vitally important food items at both producer and non-producer countries. They play vital roles in the diets of humans and are chief sources of essential dietary nutrients including vitamins, minerals and fiber (Sagar and Kumar, 2010). The area harvested and the total annual production of fruits in Nigeria in the year 2000 were 7,800 ha and 115,000 Mega gram (Mg) where increased to 10,000 ha and 150,000 Mg, respectively in 2008 (FAO, 2010). Most of the fruits produced in Ethiopia are consumed locally. Fresh fruits are regarded as highly perishable and bulky commodities as they contain more than 80% moisture (Atungulu et al., 2004; Orsat et al., 2006; Sagar and Kumar, 2010). Consequently, their transportation to distant places is costly and their condition on arrival in the importing country may be less than satisfactory (Burdon, 1997). The best way of maintaining the nutritional value of fruits is by keeping the products fresh. However, most of the storage methods require low temperatures, which are difficult to maintain throughout the chain mainly in the developing countries (Sagar and Kumar, 2010).

      Carica papaya (C. papaya) belongs to the family of Caricaceae, and several species of Caricaceae have been used as medication against a variety of diseases (Mello et al., 2008). It was originally derived from the southern part of Mexico, C. papaya is a constant plant and it is presently distributed over the whole tropical area. The fruits are eaten green or ripe, fresh or in salads because of its high sugar content (59%) and thus can be used for juice and wine production. All parts of the papaya plant can be used as medicine; the fruit flesh, flowers, seeds and the flowers. Many scientific investigations have been conducted to evaluate the biological activities of various part of C. papaya including their fruits, shoots, leaves, rinds, seeds, roots or latex.

      Papaya is a powerhouse of nutrient and is available throughout the year. It is rich source of three powerful antioxidant vitamin C, vitamin A, and vitamin E; the minerals, magnesium and potassium; the B vitamin pantothenic acid and folate and fibre. In addition all this, it contain a digestive enzyme­-papaintha effectively treats causes of trauma, allergies and sports injuries. All the nutrients of papaya as whole improve cardiovascular system, protect against heart diseases, heart attacks, strokes and prevent colon cancer. The fruit is an excellent source of beta carotene that prevents damage caused by free radicals that may cause some forms of cancer. It is reported that is helps in the prevention of diabetic heart disease. Papaya effectively treats and improves all types of digestive and abdominal disorders. It is medicine for dysepepsia, hyperacidity, dysentery and constipation. Papaya helps in digestion of proteins as it is a rich source of proteolytic enzymes. Ripe fruit consumed regularly helps in habitual constipation. It reported that papaya prevents premature aging. It may be that it works because poor digestion does not provide enough nutrients to our body.

      Based on its widespread nutritional composition, it could be used in many areas of foods. The skin which constitutes about 33% of the entire fruit could be a source of pectin which is used as gelling agent, thickener and as a stabilizer in most food and drug industries (Diana, 2010).thus a means of managing will better. The ripe fruit, preferably, chilled, may be cut halves and spooned out, leaving the seed cells and core, a combination of the flesh with that of mango, citrus, pineapple, other fruits and coconut water, is frozen as Jamaican fruit salad (Broomfield et al., 2000). It could be blended and squeezed to extract juice and served with ice, orange juice or gelled to produce jam or jelly (Cruess 1996).

1.2          Problem Statement      

       Fruits and vegetables are abundant during their different seasons, with over 50% lost to wastage due to deterioration under tropical conditions due to the high ambient temperature and humidity, pest and disease infestations, poor handling and storage facilities. Various works has been done on juice but synergy has not yet been established on the use of pectin substance in the clarification of juice and also single dose of pectin substances to reduce cloudiness may not be effective.              1.3       Aim and Objectives        1.3.1   Aim          The aim of this project is synergetic effect of pectin from two different fruit on paw-paw juice  1.3.2   Objectives        i.   To establish effect of two pectin substance        ii.   To carry our synergetic studies on stabilizing properties of pectin1.4      Justification         Cloudiness of fruit juice have affected consumer acceptability of fruit juice, which as become a major problem in food industry. Addition or use of pectin (synergy) as clarifying agent will help reduce cloudiness in fruit juice. Pectin is used as natural food preservative and additive in fruit juice production. It reduces microbial growth which may help to increase the shelf life and adds nutritional values to fruit juices. It is also a bulking agent which help to increase the volume of fruit juice and thicken it. 1.5    Scope of study         This project will show how pectin (synergy) is extracted from two different fruit, how it is used as clarifying agent and reduce cloud stability in fruit juice. It will show result of various tests that will be carried out after the clarification of the juice.