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FST00305 - SUPPLEMENTATION OF COCOA POWDER IN BISCUIT


CHAPTER ONE

1                                                          INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

Biscuit is a household name snack or flour confectionery common among all age groups in many countries. Biscuit is a term used for a variety of primarily flour-based baked food products. The Old French word “bescuit” is derived from the Latin words bis (twice) and coquere, coctus (to cook, cooked) as described by the Oxford English Dictionary. Biscuit can also be said to be an essentially baked confectionery dried to a low moisture content.

The simplest form of biscuit is a mixture of flour and water but can also contain fat, sugar and other ingredients mixed together to form a dough which is rested for a period, passed through rollers to make a sheet. The sheet is then stamped out, baked, cooled and packaged.

Biscuits are classified into three broad groups: spongy, crackers and sweet dough; based on the method used for the manufacture. Biscuits are divided into two groups as hard and soft dough. The soft dough biscuits are rich in fat and sugar and include short cakes, short bread and melted biscuits. Other types of biscuits are cream crackers, sodacrackers, savoury, water biscuits, digestive and short dough biscuits.

Biscuit is generally made from wheat flour, but it can be enriched, fortified, or the use of composite flour technology to get a superior quality products. All biscuits are nutritious, contributing valuable quantities of iron, calcium, calories, fibre and some of the B-vitamins to our diet and daily food requirement.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. It is also a leading source of protein in food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals. When eaten as a whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fibre. Whole wheat is a good source of several minerals and vitamins. The amount of minerals depends on mineral content of the soil on which it is grown. The most nutritious parts of the grain- the bran and the germ- are all removed during the milling and refining process and are absent from white wheat.

Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. The wheat flour is produced by tempering the grain to allow easy milling. This softens the starchy endosperm portion of the wheat kernel, which will be separated out in the milling process to produce the wheat flour.

Food fortification is the practise of deliberately increasing the content of essential nutrients i.e. vitamins, minerals and protein in a food so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health. Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients to food. Sometimes it’s a purely commercial choice to provide extra nutrients in a food, while other times it is a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population.

Cocoa powder comes from cocoa beans, which is produced from Cacao tree found in most tropical countries. Cacao tree was fully experimented in Ghana and it spreads across to all other West Africa countries. The beans are processed into chocolate liquor. Most of the fat is removed, and the remaining paste is dried and powdered. Cocoa powder is a key ingredient in chocolate and its products processing.

Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, a subset of polyphenols. The amount of flavonoids depends on the amount of processing and manufacturing the cocoa powder undergoes. Antioxidant sources reduce the effects of free radicals, also called oxidative damage/ stress, which plays a major role in disease formation. Antioxidants protect healthy cells while halting the growth of malignant or cancerous cells

Cocoa powder is also rich in protein. Cocoa powder is known to have several health and nutritional benefits which makes it a good resource for food fortification.

1.2 Problem Statement

Micronutrient deficiency and protein deficiency is widespread in industrialized nation and much more in the developing nations. It affects all age groups, but young children and reproductive women are more prone to this deficiency. This micronutrients malnutrition has adverse effects on human health which are also clinically evident and have serious detrimental effects on human function. It has also has an implication on economic developments and productivity, particularly in the terms of potentially public health costs and the loss of human capital formation.

Protein deficiency in its severe form is called kwashiorkor. It often occurs in children in developing countries where famine and imbalanced diets are common. Protein deficiency can affect almost all aspects of body function. As a result, it is associated with many symptoms.

1.3       Justification of the study

Cocoa powder is a wonder gotten out of cocoa and it is known to contain great amount of antioxidants, minerals and protein which helps in building the immune system and stops the chemical upset of tumors, cancers & cardiovascular diseases.

Utilization of cocoa powder enhances its workability in the body and thus provides the body with the needed nutrients, cocoa powder can then be used as a great source of enrichment to major snacks available, in particular biscuit which is a common snack around the world.

1.4 Aims and Objectives

The aims of this project is to increase the local consumption of cocoa hence the need of supplementing cocoa powder in biscuit for the purpose of increasing a well balanced nutrient consumption in individuals

SUPPLEMENTATION OF COCOA POWDER IN BISCUIT

 

Specific objectives are to;

  • To determine the proximate nutrient composition of the biscuit
  • To carry out microbial analysis of the biscuit
  • To determine the antioxidant activity of the biscuit
  • To carry out sensory evaluation of the biscuit.