- Background of the Study
Indigenous snacks could be a way of entertaining guests but the time for eating snacks between meals may be different and also the type of food consumed may also
vary from one part of the country to another (Adebowale et al., 2007). In developing countries like Nigeria that is seriously experiencing rapid process of rural urban migration and industrialization. Among many types of food source, snacks that are relied upon to meet the physiological need of the people is “Kokoro” common in the western part of the country. Most Nigerian children especially in the urban areas receive snacks items such
as biscuits, meat pies, chin -chin, dough nuts, and potato chips, while children in the rural areas make do with fried melon seed cake, robo, and fried maize paste, “Kokoro” with a very low nutritional value (Aletor and Ojelabi, 2007). “Kokoro” is traditionally produced from thick coarse corn paste for adult and children (Kent and Ever, 1994).
People that consume “Kokoro” in large quantity are faced basically with a large intake of carbohydrate, the low protein content in “Kokoro” is very evident, with a shortage of tryptophan and lysine together with its low niacin content may contribute further towards the incidence of pellagra in maize-consuming areas (Oyetoro et al., 2007; Lasekan and Akinola, 2002). Low protein intake has been majorly attributed to the increase in high cost of traditional sources of animal protein (Osho, 2003). Friedman and Brandon (2001), highlighted the essentiality of protein component in the diet, needed for human survival. Its basic function in nutrition is to supply adequate amount of needed amino acids but availability of amino acid varies with protein sources, processing treatment and interaction of other components of the diet. It is a well established fact that most leguminous plant seeds are rich in nutrients such as digestible protein with a good array of amino acids and minerals (Fagbemi et al., 2004; Agbede and Aletor, 2003).
Legume seeds are important staple food and one of the richest and cheapest sources of proteins for majority of people living in developing countries (Aletor and Ojelabi, 2007; Maltas et al., 2011; Soris and Mohan, 2011). According to Welch et al. (2000), legumes are sources of dietary minerals that potentially provide all of the 15 essential minerals required by humans. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.), which probably
originated from Asia belongs to the family Fabaceae and its cultivation dates back to about 3000 years ago (Eltayeb et al., 2010). Pigeon pea is cultivated in all tropical and sub tropical regions of the world with temperature range 20-40oC
(Eltayeb et al., 2010). Pigeon pea is considered a most important grain legume for human nutrition in many protein deficient tropical countries, including Nigeria (Okpala and Okoli, 2011). Pigeon pea, with its protein content of 21-26 % (Eltayeb et al., 2010; Okpala and Okoli, 2011) is highly desirable as a protein supplement to cereal-based diets. Okpala (2001) reported that pigeon pea meal contained high amount (mg/kg) of potassium (12500) and phosphorus (2450), moderate amount (mg/kg) of calcium (1500) and magnesium (1410), and low content of (mg/kg) of iron (39), zinc (24), copper (18) and manganese (13). When compared to other grain legumes like soybean, cowpea, groundnut, dry bean, dry pea, broad bean and chick pea, less research attention has been focused on pigeon pea. Utilisation of pigeon pea has been relegated to low-income families, despite its high satiety value, unique good taste and cheapness (Fasoyiro et al., 2010).
The food habits of Nigerians are rapidly changing from the traditional foods to lighter foods such as snacks. Producing snack using Maize and Pigeon pea will further add variety to the existing list of snack food as well as improve the under utilization of pigeon pea which can substitute other plant protein sources (Adebowale et al., 2007). Snacks consumption is on the increase nationwide for so many reasons: increase in one-person, households, working mothers and rural urban migration. The high nutrition requirement in children of primary school; therefore suggest that the nutritional content of snacks should be increased. Therefore, if snacks can be enriched with high protein flour, it will help to increase the amount of protein intake by children and other snacks consumed and can even serve as daily substitute for food among children.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
To produce and evaluate kokoro using maize and pigeon pea.
- To determination of the proximate composition of the composite flour.
- To determination of the physico-chemical properties of the composite flour.
- To determination of the antinutritional contents of the kokoro snack.
- To evaluate the sensory attribute of the kokoro made from the maize flour fortified with pigeon pea flour.