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FST00103 - PRODUCTION OF BESKE FLAVOURED WITH GINGER


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0      Background 

           Soya bean, (Glycine max) a grain legume, is one of the richest and cheapest sources of plant protein that can be used to improve the diet of millions of people, especially the poor and low income earners in developing countries because it produces the greatest amount of protein used as food by man (LIU, 2000). Nutritionally, soybean protein resembles animal protein more closely than other vegetable proteins. Soybean protein constitutes about 40% of the total solids and plays a very important role in the enrichment of cereal-based baked goods. It is also a rich source of  vitamin, minerals and  is relatively low in crude fibre (Fukushima, 1999). Soybean is a good source protein, which when used partially to replace or complement wheat flour in the production of  bakery products such as biscuits, bread and other confectionery could go a long way in improving the nutritional status of the final product (Oyenuga, 1968). Soya bean is a stable food of great nutritional value. Its importance ranges from milk production, oil processing livestock feeds, industrial uses and human consumption of soya bean (Addo and Oguntona, 1993).

           Soya bean has been recognized to be an ideal grain for meeting protein and energy requirement of both man and animal. Soya bean is probably the world’s most valuable crop, used as feed by billions of livestock, as a source of dietary protein and oil by millions of people, and in the industrial manufacture of thousands of products. Soya bean is such an extremely rich source of protein and fat, and such a good source of energy, vitamins and minerals (Nwokolo, 1996) with an average production cycle of 90-110 days from planting to harvesting. Complete utilization of soybean includes in addition to post-production aspects, the application of a range of technologies and including food processing technology, food science and nutrition, food technology, commercial soya foods production, marketing, and nutritional and health factors. When the pressing needs to alleviate poverty and malnutrition and to improve the welfare of poor people are considered, issues relating to high quality protein food, greater income opportunities for male and female are of paramount importance. Protein content is approximately 40% and fat 20% (Glami, 2002) with considerable variations depending on the cultivars.

         Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a flowering plant in the family Zingiberaceae whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a medicine.It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers. Ginger is indigenous to south China, and was spread eventually to the Spice Islands, other parts of Asia and subsequently to West Africa and the Caribbean.Ginger was exported to Europe via India in the first century AD as a result of the lucrative spice trade.India is now the largest producer of ginger.Other members of the family Zingiberaceae include turmeric, cardamom, and galangal. The distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste.

         The origin of "ginger" is from the mid-14th century, from Old English gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Latin zingiberi, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit (Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" + vera- "body", from the shape of its root. But this may be Sanskrit folk etymology, and the word may be from an ancient Dravidian name that also produced the Malayalam name for the spice, inchi-ver, from inchi "root." cf. gin (v.). The word apparently was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre (modern French gingembre).

        Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting. The fragrant perisperm of Zingiberaceae is used as sweetmeats by Bantu, also as condiment and sialogogue

        ‘Beske’ is a local popular cheese-like also know as ‘Tofu’or ‘Warasoy’, its a Nigerian snack made by curdling of milk from Soybean, in the western parts of the Nigeria is nutritious and is prepared by curdling of the milk extract from soy bean. Soy cheese, also known as sufu, furu or fermented soybean curd, is a traditionally important and popular fermented food product in China. The historical evidence confirms that the making of sufu started centuries ago in China (Han,2001) and the processing conditions differ a little in various localities of China. Originally sufu was a product of fungal fermentation but bacterial fermentation has also been carried out successfully (Hang, and Jackson, 1967; Liu et al, 2006).

         Soybean, the basic raw material for the product, has great nutritional source of proteins, minerals, etc. and therapeutic values e.g. prevention of chronic diseases such as menopausal disorder, cancer, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, and it is also beneficial in products like soy milk and soy cheese (Liu et al 2006; Wang, and Heseltine 1970 Zhao,D.A 1997;Anderson et al (1999) Setchell and Cassidy 1999). Popular and commonly available types of soy cheese in China are red, white and gray sufu. NaCl and ethanol are the basic components of sufu, which provide the traditional flavour and the product safety against pathogenic microorganisms (Han, 2001).

1.1    Scope

         The scope of this work is that , soymilk and ginger extract will be used in different proportion or ratio in the prodution of the snack.

1.2   Justification

       ‘Beske’ is cheap and nutritious, but the consumption is very low because of the beany flavour and smell despite that its very rich, flavouring with ginger is a way of improving the taste and creating variety to attract high consumption.  

        Malnutrition is a major health problem in developing countries that contributes to adult and  infant mortality, poor physical and intellectual development of adult and  infant, as well as lowered resistance to disease and consequently stifles development. Protein-energy malnutrition often occurs in most developing areas of the world where diet are low in protein and energy, protein-energy malnutrition is a very serious health concern. Without adequate protein and energy, they fail to grow normally and may develop some kind of sickness , infection and diseases. This project work is carried out to solve the problem of malnutrition, by providing the essential protein and energy needed in the food for proper growth and good health.

1.3     Aim

           To produce  ‘Beske’ (Local hard cheese ) flavoured with ginger

1.4     Objectives

  1. To determine some chemical and fisochemical of ‘beske’ (Hard cheese) flavoured with ginger at varying propotions .
  2. To determine the sensory properties of “Beske” (Local hard cheese)