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1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study                                                                                                            Pineapple is botanically referred to as Ananascomosus. It belongs to the Family Bromeliaceous.  Pineapple  is  a  tropical  fruit  which  grows  in  countries  which  are situated  in  the  tropical  and  subtropical  regions.  Pineapples grow on the ground while other bromeliads live on trees (epiphytes). It can grow up to one meter in height and 1.5 meters width. There are many cultivars of Ananas, but the predominant one is Smooth Cayenne (Samson, 1986). It is a native to central and South America. In Ghana, the total pineapple production is estimated to be around 73700 metric tons (FAO, 2010) while the total pineapple production worldwide is 18697800 metric tons (FAO, 2011).  There are several countries such as Thailand, Brazil, India, Philippines and China which contribute significantly to the total production.  Thailand, Philippines, Brazil and China are the main pineapple  producers  in  the  world  supplying  nearly  50%  of  the  total  output  (Arthey, 1995).

Other important producers include India, Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, Mexico and Costa Rica.  Thailand,  Philippines  and  Indonesia  cover  80%  of  dehydrated  slices  (chips)  and canned pineapples in the world market (Coveca, 2002). Duke in 1983 reported that more than hundred varieties of pineapple are known, and each variety is distinctive but they are generally initially assessed by external appearance: it should be fresh, clear and shiny. When completely ripe, the leaves of the crown must be of a light green color while the crown must be very green and well developed. 

Pineapple is an important food which can be eaten fresh or eaten in a processed form. It composes of nutrients which are good for human health.  Pineapple  mainly  contains water,  carbohydrate,  sugars,  and  vitamins  A, C,  Potassium  and  Magnesium  (McCarty, 2011).  It contains low amount of protein, fat, ash and fibre.  Pineapples contains antioxidants namely flavonoids, vitamin A and C.  Those antioxidants reduce the oxidative damage such as that caused by free radicals and cheating metals. It also has the enzyme complex protease (bromelain).  Bromelain contains peroxidase acid, and phosphate.  Several  proteases  are  inhibitors  and  organically  bound  to  calcium  (Tochi et al., 2008).

Pineapple, as a tropical fruit, is one of the most appreciated fruit due to its very attractive aroma and very nice flavor. Though pineapple is mainly processed into canned products, pineapple  juice  also  a  dominant  part  in  the  fruit  juice  sector,  which  ranks  fourth  in volume of fruit juice consumed (Grassin and Fauquembergue, 1996). Processed pineapple is a popular product which is exported by countries which produce pineapple. Brazil is considered the main pineapple producing country in the world since 2005 (Jaeger de Carvalho et al., 2008).  Pineapple contains micro–nutrients that experts believe protects against cancer and these micro-nutrients also break up blood clots and are beneficial to the heart.  The  ripe  pineapple  has  diuretic  properties  and  serves  as means used to  kill intestinal  worms. It also reliefs intestinal disorders and soothes the bile. Pineapple juice contains chemicals that stimulates the kidneys and aids in removing toxic elements in the body

The coconut tree (Cocosnucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spellingcoconut is an archaic form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull", from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.

Coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. They form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their large quantity of water (also called "juice") and when immature, they are known as tender-nuts or jelly-nuts and may be harvested for their potable coconut water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut "flesh".] When dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps and cosmetics. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.

The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropics for decoration, as well as for its many culinary and nonculinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm can be used by humans in some manner and has significant economic value. Coconuts' versatility is sometimes noted in its naming. In Sanskrit, it is kalpavriksha ("the tree which provides all the necessities of life"). In the Malay language, it is pokokseribuguna ("the tree of a thousand uses"). In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly called the "tree of life". The various parts of the coconut have a number of culinary uses. The seed provides oil for frying, cooking, and making margarine. The white, fleshy part of the seed, the coconut meat, is used fresh or dried in cooking, especially in confections and desserts such as macaroons. Desiccated coconut or coconut milk made from it is frequently added to curries and other savory dishes. Coconut flour has also been developed for use in baking, to combat malnutrition. Coconut chips have been sold in the tourist regions of Hawaii and the Caribbean. Coconut butter is often used to describe solidified coconut oil, but has also been adopted as a name by certain specialty products made of coconut milk solids or puréed coconut meat and oil. Dried coconut is also used as the filling for many chocolate bars. Some dried coconut is purely coconut, but others are manufactured with other ingredients, such as sugar, propylene glycol, salt, and sodium metabisulfite. Some countries in Southeast Asia use special coconut mutant called Kopyor coconut (Kopyor in Indonesia) or macapuno (in the Philippines) as dessert drinks.

1.2       Problem Statement                                                                                                               Pineapple is rich in nutrients and physio chemicals which have multiple benefits to human health. According to some previous studies, pineapple juice have various nutrient and anti nutritional factor (Brat et al., 2004; Kongsuwan et al., 2009; Zulipeli, 2007, Wardy et al., 2009). It isclearly established that processing do have effect on the juice quality e.g vitamin c, colour, trix e.t c.  However, the production and quality evaluation of beverage from blends of pineapple and coconut fruit. This project therefore arise from the need to investigate the effect of processing condition on nutrient and antinutritional factors on the beverage.

1.3       Aim and objectives

1.3.1    Aim

The aim of this research to produce and determine the quality of a beverage from the blends of pineapple and coconut fruit

1.3.2    Objectives

The objectives are to:

  1. produce a novel beverage from pineapple and coconut fruit.
  2. evaluate the chemical quality of the beverage.
  • determine the microbiological quality of the beverage
  1. evaluate the sensory evaluation


1.4       Justification

Although beverage is one of the important commodities to national economy,the effects of processing (pressing/juice extraction on the anti nutritional factors of pineapple juice. Hence, this study will be carried out to evaluation the physiochemical and biochemical characteristics of beverage and to determine the effect of processing conditions on the nutrient and anti nutritional factor of beverage.

The outcome of this study aims to provide relevant information about the effect of processing conditions on the nutrient and anti nutritional factor of the beverage to consumer and to facilitate the promotion of blend of pineapple and coconut juice to market and improve the consumption of the beverage due to its nutritional properties, and provide useful information for further hybridization among the producer.

1.5       Scope of Study

In this project, pineapple and coconut fruits farms were collected at commercial maturity stage and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. For physicochemical test, the edible portion of juice was homogenized, and then the aliquots of homogenated pulp were analysed for pH and titratable acidity (TA), and total soluble solids (TSS) as degrees Brix at 20˚C. For biochemical test, different solvents were used for the extraction of pineapple for different biochemical assays. The phytochemical or bioactive compounds of the fruit extracts were evaluated using ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, and tannin content assays. Besides, the antioxidant capacities of pineapple fruits were investigated by DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing capacity assay. In addition, the enzymatic activity of pineapple fruit was determined by bromelein proteolytic activity and protein content of the samples. For organoleptic test, the evaluation for appearance, flavour, aroma, texture and overall preference involved 30 untrained taste panelist by using 5 point Hedonic scale: 1: Dislike extremely; 2: Dislike; 3: Neither like nor dislike; 4: Like; 5: Like extremely. Lastly, the statistical evaluation was performed by using Minitab version 15 and IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) Statistics version 20.