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CHM00279- CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOUR SOP LEAVES (ANNONA MURICATA) AS AN HERBAL TEA


CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Annona muricata Linn. is a lowland tropical fruit-bearing tree in the Annonaceae family. Annona muricata is also commonly known as Graviola or Soursop or Gunbanana. The name soursop is due to sour and sweet flavour of its large fruit. Related species include cherimoya (A. cherimola) and sugar-apple (A. squamosa); paw paw (Asimina triloba) is also in the family. The soursop is native to tropical Central and South America and the Caribbean, but is now widely cultivated in tropical areas worldwide, including southern Florida and Southeast Asia, from sea level to altitudes of around 1150 meters. Soursop is one of most commonly used medicinal plants in Caribbean. Pulp of the fruit is eaten and used as an ingredient in many foods and beverages. Tea is drunk daily and often mixed with other herbal decoctions. Soursop is a slender, small, and cold-intolerant tree, generally reaching heights of 4–6 meters. The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5°C (41°F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3°C (37°F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate. This plant inhibits the growth of other plants growing around it, a phenomenon called allelopathic effect. Allelopathy is the production of specific bio molecules by plant species mostly secondary metabolites that can induce suffering or give benefit to other plant species around it (Mbagwu,2006).

The extracts from all the parts of the plant inhibit the growth and development of other plant species such as phyllantus spps, Panicum maximum, Tridax procumbens etc. The absorption of the extracts through the roots of such plants affected their physiological processes such as photosynthetic, respiratory and transpiratory rates, stomatal closure as well as reduced chlorophyll content leading to wilting, maceration of tissues, stunted growth and finally death of the affected plants. The decoction can also be used as wet compress on swollen feet and other inflammations. The juice of the fruits is taken orally as herb remedy of arthritis, haematuria and liver ailments. Pulverizing the Annona seed and mixing it with soap and water is used as effective spray against caterpillar.

Annona muricata, also known as sirsak, soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant which distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. The fruits of A. muricata are commonly used to prepare juice, syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. Different parts of A. muricata are usually contributed in ethnomedicinal activities, and indigenous communities in Africa, South America, and Indonesia extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. There was found numerous study of its biology activity, including anticancer, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antimalarial, antiparasitic and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. (Moghadamtousi et al., 2015).           

            Soursop (Annona muricata L.) is a plant that is believed to kill cancer cells, treatment of gallstones, antisembelit, uric acid and increase appetite. The National Cancer Institute found acetogenin active compounds in soursop leaves (Annona muricata L.) which can resist a variety of cancer cells. Other studies have found that the soursop has antitumor and anticancer effects are very strong. Soursop active ingredient has a strong effect in slowing the growth of cancer cells. According to The Journal of Natural Products, one of the chemical elements that annonaceous acetogenin contained in soursop able to choose, distinguish, and kill cancer cells that develop in the colon. Efficacy acetogenin in crippling cancer cells continue to be studied and researched by scientists from various countries (Artini, 2012).

Utilization of natural materials, especially natural vegetation is mostly in the form of a traditional drug classes such as herbs, while in pharmaceutical dosage forms such as tablets, caplets and capsules are still very rare. So, people are accustomed to eating soursop leaves in the form of decoction. It is expected to manufacture oral dosage in tablet form from the fraction of ethyl acetate extract of soursop leaves can produce a more practical preparation when compared to the stew. Tablets proved to be very beneficial, because it is easily stored and carried practical and appropriate dose adjustment. Tablets are the ingredients in a solid dosage form that is usually made by adding additional appropriate pharmaceutical (Elisya, 2013).

The medicinal value of this plant lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological actionon the human body (Edeoga et al., 2005). Annona muricata commonly called Sour-sop is commonly found in southern part of Nigeria. It is mostly eaten as fresh fruits. Sour-sop has found its uses in many areas. It is consumed as a desert fruit. It is made into a fruit jelly with the addition of some gelatin or used in the preparation of beverages, ice creams and syrups. A number of medicinal properties are attributed to the leaves and juice of the soursop.

1.1   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

            The aim of this project is to analyze  the mineral concentration of leaves and to discuss why it could serve as herbs for different ailments.

The Objectives of this study are;

  • To determine the mineral concentration of sour sop leaf when heated and dried.
  • To determine the mineral content.
  • To evaluate the acceptability of soursop as an herbal tea