Nanotchnology is an important field of modern research dealing with sythensis strategy and manipulations of particles structure from approximately 1 to 100 nm in size. Silver nanoparticles have been one of the most widely used nanomaterials. This study was done to evaluate the acute and chronic effect of silver nanoparticles AgNPs on histopathology of the organs (gill, liver ,kidney) using 225 juvenline fish. The effect of silver nanoparticles on behavioural response on Clarias gariepinus was equally observed.
The increasing use of nanobase products induces the potential hazards from their manufacture, transportation, waste disposal and management processes. In this report, we emphasized the acute toxicity and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using freshwater fish clarias gariepinus as an aquatic animal model. The AgNPs were synthesized using Biological method and the formation of AgNPs was monitored by UV–Visible spectroscopy analysis. The functional groups, crystaline nature and morphological characterizations were carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), range was observed at 420 nm and TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of particles was spherical and size ranges between 7.61 and 20nm. This investigation was extended to determine the potential acute toxicity, clarias gariepinus was treated orally with the lethal concentration (LC50) of AgNPs. The antioxidative responses were studied in the three major tissues such as gill, liver and kidney of clarias gariepinus. At the end of 42days period of exposure of the test organism to the sublethal concentration of the test compound, two fish were sacrified from each group and the organs (liver, gills, kidney) of exposed and control samples of clarias gariepinus were removed for histopathological examinations. The result of this investigation were subjected to stastical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that increase chemical concentration ion of AgNPs led to bioaccumulation of AgNPs in the major tissues. The histological parameters showed significant alterations in the treated fish. The histological changes caused by biologically synthesized AgNPs demonstrated the damages in the tissues, primary lamella and blood vessels of Clarias gariepinus. The histological study also displayed the formation of vacuolation in liver ,cellular necrosis in kidney and gill filament degeneration when compared with untreated tissues (control) of clarias gariepinus.