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BIO00185 - BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM PLEUROTUS PULMONARIUS AQUEOUS EXTRACT AND THEIR BIOMEDICAL ASSAY


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

  • Nano-biotechnology

Nano-biotechnology is defined as the aspect of biotechnology that deals with synthesis, design and stabilization of various nanoparticles using biological tools (Shaligramet al., 2009; Lateef et al., 2015).

It involves manipulation of particles structure with dimension smaller than 100 nm. Nanoparticles have been classically produced by physical and chemical methods (Guzman et al., 2012) involving techniques like heating (Huang and Yang, 2004) and irradiation (Abid et al., 2002; Gasaymehet al., 2010). However, these methods are costly, toxic and hazardous ( Lateefet al., 2015), hence the need for alternative, eco-friendly approaches, which may be assured by biological methods. Biological methods of synthesis of nanoparticles have shown very promising solutions to those posed by classical approaches.

  • The size of nano-materials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nano-materials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications.
  • The integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools,physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles.
  • Applications of nanotechnology to medicine and physiology imply materials and devices designed to interact with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity. This can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects.
  • Nanoparticles are gaining interest in the field of Nano drug delivery systems without harming the cells of the body organs. Hence, there is a need to develop green chemistry approaches in the synthesis for the Nanomaterials. In this aspect, synthetic methods based on naturally occurring biomaterials are the alternative eco-friendly method.
  • The synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles and their description attracts an increasing interest in the field of nanotechnology because of their potential applications in various fields such as biotechnology, chemistry, physics and medicine. Among several Nano products, the most prominent Nano products are Nano silver and Nano gold. They have been used for antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-hemolytic effects.
  • Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs or Nano silver) have attracted increasing interest due to their unique physical, chemical and biological properties compared to their macro-scaled counterparts.
  • Silver nanoparticles can be prepared using chemical, physical and biological methods but unlike biological synthesis for chemical and physical methods under high temperature, pressure, chemical solvent and capping agents are required for the preparation of nanoparticles.
  • In case of biologically synthesized nanoparticles microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) and plants are often used for synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles both in extracellular and intracellular process.
  • There are also lot of application on biomedical side; being added to wound dressings, topical creams, antiseptic sprays and fabrics. Silver functions as an antiseptic and displays a broad biocides effect against microorganisms through the disruption of their unicellular membrane thus disturbing their enzymatic activities. In our present study Ag NPs were synthesized by green way because it play an important role in our daily life and have wide-ranging applications such as bimolecular detection, catalysis, biosensors and medicine; it is been acknowledged to have strong inhibitory and bactericidal effects along with the anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis activities (El-Chaghaby& Ahmad 2011).
  • Mushrooms are used for a variety of biotechnological applications, particularly for the production of food, enzymes, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical compounds, feed supplements.

 1.2 Mycosynthesis of AgNPs

        Mushrooms are macro fungi which can be found in the wild and be cultivated on farms. The oyster mushroom Pleurotusspp. Is a medicinal mushroom which has anticancer, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolic, anti-arthritic, anti-yeast, and antifungal activities. A vast variety of proteins and polysaccharides found in mushrooms has been utilized in the synthesis of both intracellular and extracellular gold(Au) and silver(Ag) NPs. The compound secreted by medicinal mushrooms provided the NPs that are formed with high stability, extended shelf-life, water solubility and good dispersion properties ( Owaid, 2017).

          The mycosynthetic method was developed to biosynthesize Ag-NPs that had distinct advantages over chemical methods such as their biosafety, non-toxicity and being highly environmental friendly. This is today called green chemistry or green nanotechnology. Myco-synthezing means the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by using fungi/mushroom extract instead of another bio or chemical materials. This kind of synthesis which is cheap to implement and which uses natural energy led to the production of functionalized Ag-NPs on an industrial scale. This is very handy for using mushroom Ag-NPs for a wide range of applications in the nano field, because of the huge number of mycelia or fruiting bodies that are produced (Bhat et al., 2011)

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research work is to evaluate the medicinal potentials of biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Pleurotuspulmonarius aqueous extract.

The objectives of this study are;

  • To synthesize and characterize the Silver Nanoparticles from Pleurotuspulmonarius
  • To determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and thrombolytic activities of the Silver nanoparticles.