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BCH00270 - THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS DRUG (SEPTRIN) AND ANALGESICS DRUG (PARACETAMOL) ADMINISTRATION IN THE FEMALE WISTER RAT SERUM, LIVER, SMALL INTESTINE AND BRA


CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

            Self-medication is the use of non-prescribed drugs to treat self-diagnosed disorders or symptoms. This can include the use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs available without a physician’s prescription through pharmacies (WHO,2000; Jain,2011) the irregular use of a prescribed drug, typically in chronic or intermittent diseases, or the use of leftover drugs from previous prescriptions. It also includes the use of a wide range of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) such as herbal medicines (herbs or herbal preparations), nutritional supplements, traditional products, and home remedies (Pfaffenbach et al., 2010; WHO,2015).People all over the world suffer common health problems (e.g. colds, headaches, digestive problems and muscle aches) in roughly the same frequency and respond in the same way to these problems. In 50% of the cases, they let the condition run its course or use at home remedy. In 25% of cases, they use non-prescription/OTC medications and the remaining 25% of cases visit a physician or use a prescription medicine previously obtained for the same condition. Surveys show that OTC medications are seen by many people as being as effective as prescription medications (France,2015). The reasons for using self-medication are poorly understood.. Most studies point to loose regulations about medication, and inadequate access to health care, as the main reasons(WHO, 2002). In many developing countries thousands of different prescription-only drugs are sold OTC. Many of these are drugs which potentially serious side-effects and need to be used with care(WHO,2015).The potential risks of self-medication include using inappropriate drugs, or inaccurate dosages, which may result in adverse reactions. It may temporarily mask symptoms and delay patients from seeking medical advice, which could result in serious complications(WHO,2002). Self-medication with antibiotics has the serious potential for development of drug-resistant microorganisms and hence future treatment failure (Gossens et al.,2015)Irrational use of analgesics and antibiotics may lead to adverse events including a variety of gastrointestinal complications, adverse effects on kidney function, risk of cardiovascular events and hepatic injury(Remington et al.,2006).

Antibiotic--originally used to denote a chemical substance produced by one microorganism that kills or inhibits the growth of other microbes, the term now applies to both naturally produced substances and those synthesized in the laboratory (Russell,2004). Most are produced by either fungi (e.g., penicillin, cephalosporins), Bacillus species (e.g., polymyxin, bacitracin), or Streptomyces species (streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, nystatin). Broad-spectrum antibiotics are those that act on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Brooks et al.,2004).

Medications that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness are classified as analgesics. They are also commonly referred to as pain killer. There are various classes of analgesics, determined by their chemical structures and mechanisms of action.This research work focuses primarily on the non opioid analgesics  ,  which are normally used to manage moderate to severe pain e.g, paracetamol (Bassols,2002).

Due to availability of chemist nearby, this has lead to increase in the use drug without prescription resulting in the abuse of drugs (such as antibiotics and anagelsics), prolonged use of these drugs leads to the accumulation of the drugs metabolites in the various body organs and can be toxic to the organs.

1.1.1    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

            The aim of this experiment is to know the effect of antibiotics (septrin) and analgesics (paracetamol) in the brain ,blood, kidney ,liver and small intestine.