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BCH00269- EFFECTS OF TURKISH HAZELNUT ON BIOCHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER AND KIDNEYS FOLLOWING HIGH-FAT DIET IN MICE


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Hazelnut, (genus Corylus), also called filbert, cobnut, or hazelgenus of about 15 species of shrub sand trees in the birch family (Betulaceae) and the edible nuts they produce. The plants are native to the North Temperate Zone. Several species are of commercial importance for their nuts, and a number are valuable hedgerow and ornamental trees grown for their colorful autumnal foliage. An oil from the European filbert, or common hazel (Corylusavellana), is used in food products, perfumes, and soaps; the tree yields a reddish white soft timber, useful for small articles such as tool handles and walking sticks.

Hazelnuts are deciduous; their leaves are alternate, serrate, obovate, and hairy. The plants range from 3 to 36 meters (10 to 120 feet) in height. In late winter a profusion of yellow male catkins and smaller red-centered clusters of female flowers appear on the same tree. The nut of hazel is roughly spherical to oval in shape, about 15–25 mm long and 10–15 mm in diameter, with an outer fibrous husk surrounding a smooth shell. The nut falls out of the husk when ripe, about seven to eight months after pollination. The kernel of the seed is edible and use raw or roasted, or ground into paste. The seed has a thin, dark brown skin which sometimes is removed before use (Martins and Matos, 2014).

            Hazelnuts are used in confectionery to make praline, and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and products such as Nutella and Frangelico liqueur. Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly flavored and used as a cooking oil.

Hazelnuts are rich in protein, monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, manganese, and numerous other essential nutrients.

1.1       Aim

This is to ascertain the histological and neurobehavioural effects of hazelnut with high fat on cerebellar cortex.

1.2       Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives are to;

(a)   Evaluate the effects of Turkish hazelnut on body weight of mice fed high-fat diet

(b)  Determine the effect of Turkish hazelnut on the lipid profile and blood glucose levels following high-fat diet

(c) Determine the effect of Turkish hazelnut on open-field behaviors following high-fat diet

(d) Examine the effect of Turkish hazelnut on the histology of the cerebellum following high fat diet.