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BCH00176 - EPIDYDIMAL SPERM MOTILITY OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE – INDUCED INFERTILE RATS TREATED WITH AQEOUS EXTRACT OF Cissus populnea STEM


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

Infertility can be defined as the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse (Idrisa et al., 2005).

Male infertility refers to a male’s inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen quantity and semen quality, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity. Conditions that can cause male infertility are: infections, hormonal imbalances, diseases, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, exposure to chemicals or radiation and so on (Ojekale et al., 2015).

Reproduction (or making a baby) is a simple and natural experience for most couples. However, for some couples it is very difficult to conceive. A man’s fertility generally reli on the quantity and quality of his sperm. If the number of sperm a man ejaculates is low or if the sperm are of a poor quality, it will be difficult, and sometimes impossible, for him to cause a pregnancy. Male infertility is diagnosed when, after testing both partners, reproductive problems have been found in the male. Male infertility is usually caused by problems that affect either sperm production or sperm transport. About two-thirds of infertile men have a problem with making sperm in the testis. Either low numbers of sperm are made and/or the sperm that are made do not work properly. Sperm transport problems are found in about one in every five infertile men, including men who have had a vasectomy but now wish to have more children. Blockages (often referred to as obstructions) in the tubes leading sperm away from the testis to the penis can cause a complete lack of sperm in the ejaculated semen. Other less common causes of infertility include: sexual problems that affect whether semen is able to enter the woman’s vagina for fertilization to take place (one in 100 infertile couples); low levels of hormones made in the pituitary gland that act on the testis (one in 100 infertile men); and sperm antibodies (found in one in 16 infertile men). In most men sperm antibodies will not affect the chance of a pregnancy but in some men sperm antibodies reduce fertility (McLachlan, 2018).

 Male infertility factors contribute to approximately 30% of all infertility cases, and male infertility alone accounts for approximately one-fifth of all infertility cases.

Causes of male infertility include; Problems of production of sperm like Oligosospermia, Azospermia, Asthenozospermia and Teratozospermia. Obstruction of the ejaculatory ducts, which can result from infection, can also cause infertility. Alcohol intake and tobacco have been found to be risk factors for infertility in both partners. Causes of female factor infertility include ovulatory disorders, tubal blockage, uteroperitoneal factors like uterine synaechia, uterine fibroid and endometrosis. The role of sexually transmitted infection in causing infertility is well established (Nwajiaku  et al., 2012).

In Ile-Ife, oligospermia was the commonest sperm abnormality (Ikechebelu et al., 2003). This is in contrast with study from Ibadan where the commonest sperm abnormality was Asthenozoospermia (Adeniji et al., 2003). Male factor alone was responsible for infertility in 25% of cases, which compares well with 28.8% in Maiduguri (Idrisa et al., 2008), 27%in Ibadan (Adeniji et al., 2003), and 22% in Adelaide, Australia (Weiss et al., 1992). Both partners were responsible in 20% of cases and unexplained in 10% of cases (Bayasgalen et al., 2004). Female factor alone was responsible for infertility in 45%of the cases. Idrisa et al reported a value of 31.3% in Maiduguri (Idrisa et al., 2008)