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ANP00267- PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOAT BEEN PLACED ON CASSAVA PEEL AND PARKIA BIGLOBOSA


CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
    • Background of the Study

Goats are one of the few trypanotolerant livestock species in the humid zone of Nigeria, where most households keep an average of 9 goats while larger numbers are kept in the savanna parts of the country. FAO (1980) estimated the goat population in Nigeria at 35.7 million. Nigeria and especially the southern region have important role in goat production in the Africa continent and the world in general (Ngere et al, 1984). In this region, the herd is mainly composed of local breed animals without breed type (Moruppa and Ngere, 1986), which are characterized by good adaptation to environmental conditions but lower productivity rates when compared to the breeds coming from the temperate regions (Odo et al, 2000). Some developing countries as well as Nigeria, with the strategies to meet the increasing demand for animal products, introduced exotic genotype with a high degree of specialization such as white Bornu, Red Sokoto and Anglo- Nubian breeds for example. For milk production the most used breed in Northern Nigeria is the white Bornu.

However, in the southern region, a researcher whose rearing system was mainly based on pasture, breed most extensively the F1 cross between white Bornu and local with the objective to exploit the greater productivity in well adapted animals (Otoikhian, 2005). Although the use of white Bornu goats in the southern part was pronounced in the last few years, it has little studies concerning their ability to tolerate the insulating temperate in the tropical areas. Odubote et al (1993) reported a substantial alteration in the sexual behavior and estrus activity in west Africa dwarf goats under improved management system in south – western Nigeria, It is well known that the stress from environmental conditions scan produce a reduction in reproductive performance as well the meat and milk production (Osakwe and Smith, 2004). Nevertheless the study of environmental response may be suitable to obtain good productive index in these areas, in respect of the animal welfare.

            The African locust beans, Parkiabiglobosais a perennial tree legume which belong to the sub family Mimosoideae and family Leguminosae. It grows in the savannah region of West Africa up to the southern edge of the Sahel zone 130N (Campbell-platt, 1980). The tree of the Pakiaspecies are usually and carefully preserved by the inhabitants of the area where they grow because they are valuable sources of reliable food, especially the seeds which serves as source of useful ingredients for consumption (Campbell-platt, 1980). The fruit pulp of the African locust beans is sweet to the taste when it is ripped, which indicates the presence of natural sugars and thus a potential energy source. According to Uwaegbute (1996), the powdery fruit pulp contains more carbohydrate than the seeds, the carbohydrate being primarily reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and other complex carbohydrate. The attractive yellow colour indicates the presence of phyto-nutrients possibly carotenoids, which are important precursors of retinol (vitamin A). It has a sour taste when unripe which indicates the presence of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Hassan and Umar (2005) reported that the Parkia pulp has poor essential amino acid content with a score of 1/8. Literature reveals that the fruit pulp is used in rural Africa during emergencies when grain stores are empty, which is an indication of its edibility and non-toxicity (Owoyeleet al. 1987 and Akomaet al. 2001).

The carbohydrate content of the fruit pulp was found to be 67.30% (Garnahet al. 2007); this is much higher than the 49.49% carbohydrate in the seed (Felugaet al. 1974). Though proteins and fat also also provide energy, carbohydrate are much cheaper and more easily digested and absorbed (Fox and Cameron, 1989). While the use of Parkia seeds as an alternative source of protein in livestock diets abound in literature the use of the pulp is still being investigated. It is against this background that this study was designed to evaluate the nutritive value of Parkiafruit pulp in broiler diets.

1.2      JUSTIFICATION

Cassava peel meal is available all year round, in Nigeria for example cassava peel are always left to rot away or burnt to create space for accumulation of yet more waste heaps. The heaps emits carbondioxide and create a strong offensive smell. Whereas, it contains some substantial amount of nutrients which is of benefit for small ruminants. Also, supplementation of Cassava peel meal with African locust beans becomes very reasonable because African locust beans is known to have high carbohydrate content that is comparable to lentils and Bambara nuts.

 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

General Objective

To study the physiological response of WAD goat been placed on cassava peel and Parkia biglobosa.

Specific Objective

  • To determine the effect of Parkia biglobosa supplement in the physiological characteristics of the animals