Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that can cause Staphylococcal Food Poisoning (SFP). Milk and dairy products are frequently contaminated by this bacterium. In this study, 8 samples (4 raw milk and 4 dairy cheese) were collected from a small scale farm at Alomaja Orisunbare village in Oyo state, Nigeria, with the objective of detection and enumeration of S. aureus and other Staphylococcus species. Baird Parker agar for isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identification were employed. S. aureus was found in 20% of sample from cow 3 with Total Aerobic Count of 1.1x104 CFUs/g. The prevalence of S. aureus was significantly greater in raw milk samples than in dairy products. Of all S. aureus positive samples, 20% contained >5 log10 CFU ml-1. Samples from small-scale dairies were twice more likely to be contaminated by S. aureus than traditionally managed dairies (P<0.05, OR=2.0). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were found in 51.6% of the samples. The frequency of isolation found in this study indicates that S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. may impose public health hazard in dairy products. Therefore, further studies on the enterotoxigenic potential of the isolates, and molecular epidemiology to trace the sources of the contamination are recommended.
Mastitis which is the inflammation of the Parenchyma of the mammary gland is characterized by physical, chemical and bacteriological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissue. Nigeria cattle population stands at 13million and livestock in general contribute 5% of Gross Domestic Product. Milk produced from these animals provides an important dietary source for the majority of rural as well as a considerable number of the Urban and PreUrban Population. However, Mastitis is said to be among the various factors contributing to reduced milk production.
Mastitis is a common problem among livestock in Nigeria and despite its economic importance very littleattention is given to it.
Mastitis is one of the most common and costly diseases of dairy cattle, it can be contagious and the mode of spread is rapid and can only be controlled by good management programme (Allore1993). Mastitis is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissues to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury. Mastitis maybe an infection caused by microbial organisms or non-infection resulting from physical injury to mammary gland (McDonald1979).
This disease can be identified by abnormalities in the udder such as swelling, heat, redness or pain, other indication of mastitis may be abnormalities in milk such as a watery appearance, flakes, clotsorpus. (Allore, 1993) also described mastitis as a persistent inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue in cows. This potentially fatal mammary gland infection is the most common disease in dairy cattle. Milk from cows suffering from mastitis has increased somatic cells (leukocytes) which are released into the mammary gland, usually as response to an invasion of bacteria of the teat canal. Milk secreting tissues and various ducts through out the mammary gland are
damaged due to toxin
The mostcommon mastitis pathogens are contagious and environmental pathogens. Among the contagious pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae; whilethe environmental pathogens are Streptococcus uberis and Streptoccoccus dysgalectiae (Fox&Smith1993). Mastitis is caused by a variety of pathogens and prevalence of mastitis is high in some countries of the world. Hygiene plays an important role in disease management.
Most of the illiterate farmers in Nigeria do not wash their hands or the udder of the cow before milking is carried out and this is a preventive avenue for the spread of mastitis. A mastitis control programme is needed for running a profitable dairy business (Jones2006). The mastitis occurring in lactating cows after calving is higher in pendulous udder than in those cows with non-pendulous udder (Sorietal2005). The pendulous udder exposes the teat to injury and pathogens may easily adhere to the teat and get access to the gland tissue. The infection rate in cows with teat lesions is higher than in cows with normal teats.
Mastitis, a bacterial disease which infect the mammary gland of dairy cattle, is the most important and expensive disease in the dairy industry. Its effects on the milk included is coloration, presence of clots, presence of large number of leukocytes and watery appearance (Ratafia1987). Mastitis disease is seen on cows in villages in Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria. This disease affects the udder (mammary glands) of these cows where milk is extracted from the cow. The rate of occurrence of this disease in this area, if not addressed, can cause a reduction of milk supply in this community and by extension in Nigeria, because Plateau State is of major importance in the livestock industry in Nigeria.
1.1 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The continuing high incidence of mastitis suggests that practical husbandry methods alone do not give adequate control, and that additional benefit could be obtained from increasing the resistance and reducing the susceptibility of cows to udder infections and maintaining cleanliness around the animal environment to prevent contamination. The development and implementation of breeding principles that have long-lasting, cumulative and permanent effects can complement udder health care.
1.2 GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim and objective of this study is to determine the incidence of this disease (mastitis) in some dairy farms and evaluate source, causes, effect in milk producing industries and its control.
- SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
(i) To determine the factors affecting the incidence of mastitis.
(ii) To determine the source, cause and evaluate the forms of mastitis.
(iii) To identify mastitis associated risk factors in dairy farms and its control.
(iv) To determine bacterial affecting lactating cows.