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ANP00007 - Carcass characteristics and organ weight of broiler chickens fed cassava peel meal


ABSTRACT

A four weeks experiment was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and organ weight of broiler chicken fed varying level of cassava peel meal (CPM) at starter phase. Ninety (90) unsexed day old broiler chicks were used for study. The birds were randomly divided into three (3) groups of thirty birds each and the groups allocated to three treatments that contained either 0%, 50% or 75% CPM in replacement for maize usually completely randomized design (CRD). Each experiment was replicated three times with ten (10) birds per replicate. Data were collected on carcass characteristics and internal organ weight. The data collected were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance of SPSS computer software package.

Result showed the live weight and carcass weight of the birds that fed on diets containing 75% CPM were higher (p<0.05) than those fed control diet and 50% CPM.  Abdominal fat, gizzard open and gizzard close, GIT, pancreas, liver weight, did not follow any particular trend. It was concluded that up to 75% maize can be replaced with CPM in broiler starter diets without any adverse effect on the carcass and organ characteristics of the birds

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

Poultry contributes to improved human nutrition and food security by being leading source of high quality protein in form of eggs and meat. It acts as a key supplement to revenue from crops and other livestock enterprises, thus avoiding over dependency on traditional commodities with inconsistent prices. It has a high potential to generate foreign exchange earnings through export of poultry products to neighboring countries. Poultry is highly prized in many social-cultural functions such as dowry and festivities. The industry is characterized by widely diverse methods of production which include the following: village flocks, small scale commercial flocks and large-scale commercial farms. Constraints in poultry production include: production related constraints (inadequate access to improved breed, access and affordability of feed, disease control); lack of knowledge and skills, inadequate capital at all levels and marketing.

Broiler production is one of the most popular livestock enterprises adopted by small and medium scale farmers in both rural and urban areas as it offers the highest turnover rate and quicker returns on investment outlay (Idowuet al., 2005, Afolayanet al., 2014). The benefit of broiler production is eroded by the high cost of feed and it has been well established that feed alone account for about 70% of the total cost of poultry production (Iyayi and Tewe, 1998; Fasuyi, 2005). Maize, which is the predominantly used ingredient for energy in poultry feed in Nigeria, is very costly, because of higher demand for it by humans as food and industrial purposes (Bot et al., 2013, Etuket al., 2013). Therefore, there is an urgent need for an alternative to maize in livestock feeds, to reduce the current pressure on maize as stable food for man (Uchegbu and Udedibe, 1998; Adeniyi and Balogun, 2002). One of such alternatives for replacement of maize in animal diets is the processed cassava peel meal (Iyayi, 1991, Abu and Onifade, 1996; Erurbefineet al. 1996, Salami and Odunsi, 2003, Agianget al., 2004).

 Cassava peel in Nigeria is always discarded as waste and is usually allowed to rot, hence resulting to waste disposal problem. The relative availability and low cost of cassava peel make it an option in animal feeding (Oladunjoyeet al., 2014). However, the use of cassava peel is limited by hydrocyanic acid and high fiber content which is harmful to the monogastrics. A preliminary findings indicated that processing of cassava peels by soaking possibly reduces more of the cyanide which, could be due to the twin processes of fermentation and leaching of cyanide (IITA, 1990) in the water-soaked peels prior to sun drying unlike other processing methods (Salami and Odunsi, 2003). The cassava plant is traditionally grown for the production of roots. It yields about 10 – 30 t ha-1 of leaves that is usually wasted or used as manure (Bokanga, 1994), also cassava peels are a major by-product of cassava processing and constitutes about 10-13 % of whole root weight (Teweet al., 1976). However, the leaves have become increasingly important as a source of protein for monogastric and ruminant animals (Wanapat 2002). Cassava leaves are rich in protein but they are low in sulfur amino acids (Gomez et al 1985; Phucet al 2000). The leaf protein is reported to be limiting in methionine and tryptophan but rich in lysine, with overall biological value of 49-57% (Frochlichet al 2001).

1.1         JUSTIFICATION

Because of high price of maize and being one of the convectional ingredient in monogastric diet, it has make its use in livestock feed uneconomical, therefore there is greater need to look for alternative feed sources that can conveniently and economically replace maize without compromising animal performance in terms of weight gain and health status. Cassava peel meal is available all year round, in Nigeria for example cassava peel are always left to rot away or burnt to create space for accumulation of yet more waste heaps. The heaps emits carbondioxide and create a strong offensive smell. Whereas it contains some substantial amount of nutrients which is of benefit for feeding broilers.

1.2         OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

1.2.1      General Objectives

To determine the effect of cassava peel meal supplemented with exogenous enzyme on the carcass characteristics and organ weight of broiler chickens.

1.2..2   Specific Objectives

  • To determine the carcass characteristics of broilers fed Cassava Peel Meal (CPM)
  • To determine the organ weight of broilers fed Cassava Peel Meal (CPM)