1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Poultry contributes to improve human nutrition and food security by being the leading source of high quality protein in form of eggs and meat (Ademosu, 1996). It acts as a key supplement to revenue from crops and other livestock enterprises, thus avoiding over dependency on traditional commodities with inconsistent prices. It has a high potential to generate foreign exchange earnings through export of poultry products to neighboring countries (Nurmi, 2003). Poultry is highly prized in many social-cultural functions such as dowry and festivities. The industry is characterized by widely diverse methods of production which include the following: village flocks, small scale commercial flocks and large-scale commercial farms. Constraints in poultry production include: production related constraints (inadequate access to improved breed, access and affordability of feed, disease control); lack of knowledge and skills, inadequate capital at all levels and marketing (Bone, 1998).
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. The term broiler is applied to chickens that are bred for meat, they grow rapidly (Begum, 2005). Broiler production is one of the most popular livestock enterprises adopted by small and medium scale farmers in both rural and urban areas as it offers the highest turnover rate and quicker returns on investment outlay. Broiler strains are based on hybrid cross between Cornish White, New Hampshire and White Plymouth Rock. In broiler production, there are two main production phases – keeping of parent stock and production of day-old-chicken and growing and finishing of broilers (Begum, 2005).
Antibiotics are substances that can destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. They are widely used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. They are therapeutically used to protect the health and welfare of humans and animals (Ogundipe et al., 2001). Some antibiotics are produced by microorganisms but most of them are now manufactured synthetically (Obioha, 2007). Antibiotic have been used in the livestock farming for several decades in combating bacterial infection but lack of proper application and brooding can led to assurance of residue in food of animal origin and their edible product are duplicated to safe level before the animal tissue can be used for food by humans.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Poultry production in Nigeria is largely in the hands of our local producers who
produce mainly for home consumption with little for sale to other consumers. Presently, the industry has been adversely affected by major problems associated with
the raising of broilers such as their susceptibility to diseases, shortage and high cost of feed, high
cost and inadequate veterinary services and drugs, poor quality of equipment and other
inputs (Adebayo & Adeola, 2005). Poultry owners need to be aware of diseases associated with poultry. Over the years, poultry diseases have been discovered to pose a huge risk to commercial poultry keepers. And eradication of these poultry diseases using antibiotics and also assessment of withdrawal period of feed and water grade antibiotics is very important to the poultry industry.
Various works have been done on the effect of withdrawal period of antibiotics on carcass, organ and growth performance of broiler chicken, but it has not been recorded that research have been done on the interaction effect of mode of administration and withdrawal period of antibiotics on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler chicken.
1.4. General Objectives
The main objective is to assess the effect of withdrawal period of feed and water grade antibiotics on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler chicken.
1.5. Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of the study are to:
- determine the effect of withdrawal periods of antibiotics on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler chicken.
- assess the effect of mode of administration of antibiotics of carcass and organ characteristics of broiler chicken
- evaluate the interaction effect of mode of administration and withdrawal periods of antibiotics on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler chicken