The study examined social capital and food insecurity in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. The specific objectives include identifying the socio-economic characteristic of the respondent in the chosen local government area, determine the food security status of the sample households in Odeda Local Government Area, Compare the effect of the social capital on food security between the sampled household in Odeda Local Government.
Multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 120 respondents. The analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, probit regression, Gross margin and Two stage Least Square.
The result revealed that that 9.17% of the respondents was in the age range of 20-40 years, 85.00% were in the age bracket of 41 - 60years, 5.83 were in the age range of above 60 years. The mean age of the respondents in the study area was 50.91 years with a standard deviation of 6.91. The mean farming experience of the respondents was 30.21 years with a standard deviation of 7.37 years. The result of education showed that 41.67% of the farmers had primary education, 44.17% had secondary education while 14.17% had tertiary education. Thus one can also conclude that majority of the respondents in the study area were educated enough to enable them successfully adopt innovations to improve their productivity incomes and welfare. The result also revealed that 5.0% of the respondents had a farm size of less or equal to one hectares, 26.67% of them had farm size of between 2-3 hectares, 37.5% of the respondents had a farm size of between 3-4 hectares, while 30.83% of the respondents had a farm size of greater than 4 hectares. The mean farm size in the study area was 3.53 hectares with a standard deviation of 1.63. For the first stage regression result the findings reveals that number of family labour, number of hired labour, sex and social capital variable (member of social group) are all significant to the food security farmers. Farmers who engage both family labour and hired labour are more likely to be food secured than those who did not. Based on estimates of the results, farmers who belong to an association (social capital) are more likely to be food secured and have higher productivity than those who did not. Also, farmers who are older with many years of farming experience, have increased likelihood of being food secured with higher productivity than their counterpart though not statistically significant. Furthermore, the result shows that the significant variables that influenced participation of the respondents in social groups were education (10%), and household size (10%). The positive influence of education on participation in social groups by the farmers could result from the more potential capacity which educated individuals have.
The study concluded that the positive influence of education on participation in social groups by the farmers could result from the more potential capacity which educated individuals have.
1.1 Background of the Study
Achievement of food security for all remains a big challenge for most developing countries like Nigeria. Food is a basic necessity of life. The importance of food to every household cannot be ever emphasized. Food account for a larger part of a typical Nigerian household budget and it has been established that the quality of food consumed by households affect their health and economic wellbeing (Adesimi and Ladipo, 1989). Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa is an persistent as it is wide special (FAO, 2006), of the estimated 923 million undernourished. People in the world, about 200 million of them in Sub-Saharan Africa (FAO, 2009) and in Nigeria, and estimated 8 percent of the 140 million strong population was estimated to be undernourished in the 2004- 2006 period (FAO, 2009).
Among the development problem confronting Nigeria, food insecurity ranks topmost. The level of food insecurity ranks topmost. The level of food insecurity has steadily been on the increase since the 1980s and despite the millennium. Development Goal target to eradicated extreme poverty and hunger between 1990 and 2015 (FAO, 2006), less than 5 years to the target year, available statistics still cast doubt on whether this goal could be achieved by 2015.Food Security ‘exist when all people, at all times, have physical, economics, and social access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an achieve and healthy life’ (FAO, 2001). The basic minimum level of nutrient requirement has been determined by the food and Agricultural Organization to be 2450 kcal of energy per capital intake (FAO, 2007) Food Security at both the national and household level is dismal and in Nigeria, the percentage of food insecure households was reported to be 18 percent in 1986 and 40 percent in 2005 (Sanusiet et al, 2oo6). It then becomes imperative that Nigeria urgently takes action to cope with immediate need for food and build a stronger food system that can respond to future challenges. At the household level, food security implies regular access to food over time. Food access is a function of the physical, social and policy environment which determine how effectively households are able to put their resource into use so as to meet tier food security objectives, however, a number of factor such as income, educational level, and household size are know to affect household food security as they directly affect economic access and the substance of such access.
The problem of food has been a major concern to the world in recent time,. According (FAO, 2003), over 8 million people in developed countries about 20 percent of the population, are chronically undernourished this situation is expected to worsen if action is not taken to improve on food security. A high population of rural households suffers from malnutrition and other diseases related to nutrition. Meanwhile, social capital has been found to have major impact on the income and welfare of the poor by improving the outcome of activities that affect them. It happens that efficiency of rural development programs by increasing agricultural productivity, facilitation, the management of common resource making rural trading more profitable, and improving access of households to water, sanitation, credit and education in rural and urban areas (Narayam, 2002). Social capital refers to the institution, relationships and norms that shape the quality, and quantity of a society’s social interactions. It is the give that hold a society together.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social network are central, transaction are marked by reciprocity, trust, cooperation and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves but for a common good. The term generally refers to as a resources and the value of these resources, both tangible (public spaces, private property)and the relationship among these resources, the impact that this relationship have on the resources involve in each relationship and on larger group, it is generally seen as a capital produces public good for a common good. Social capital has been used to explain the improved performance of a diverse group, the growth of entrepreneurial firm, superior managerial performance, enhanced supply chain relations, the value derived from stra tegic alliance, and the evolution of communities. During the 1900s and 2000s, the concept has become increasingly popular in a wide range of social science discipline and politics. According to Coleman (1988), social capital can take on three forms: Firstly, obligations and expectations which depend on the trustworthiness of the social environment, secondly, the capacity of information to flow through the social structure in order to provide a basis for action and thirdly, the presence of norms.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem of food insecurity has been a major concern to the world in recent time, According to (FAO, 2003), over 8 million people in developed countries about 20 percent of the population, are chronically under nourished this situation is expected to worsen if action is not taken to improve on food security.
A high proportion of rural households suffer from malnutrition and other diseases related to nutrition. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the effects of social capital in food insecurity of harmless most importantly of Odeda Local Government in Ogun state Nigeria, this creating a gap
1.3 Research Question
(1). What are the socio- economic characteristics of the respondents in the study area
(2). What is the food security status of the respondent in the study area
(3). What is the comparism of the effects of social capital on food security between the sampled households in Odeda Local Government
1.3.1 Objectives of the study
The Main objectives of this project is to evaluate the effect of social capital on the level of food security of households in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State Nigeria.
The specific objectives are the following.
- Identify the socio-economic characteristic of the respondent in Odeda Local Government area.
- Determine the food security status of the sample households in Odeda Local Government Area.
iii. Compare the effect of the social capital on food security between the sampled household in Odeda Local Government.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Food is a basic human necessity, its availability (via production and distribution) and accessibility (ie affordability) remains a major challenges in developing economics, food security has a long history as an “organizing principle” for social and economic development. Food security is a condition related to the supply of food and individuals access to it. There is evidence of granaries being in use over 10,000 years ago. With central authorities in civilization including ancient china and ancient Egypt being known to release food from storage in terms of famine. At the 1974 world food conference the term food security was defined with an emphasis on supply. Food security is the availability at all time of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuation in production and price. The final report of the 1996 World Food Summit states that the food security exists when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Therefore, this project helped to determine how social capital influence the level of food security in Odeda Local Government Area. Household food security exist when all members at all-time have access to enough food for an active healthy life, individual who are food insecurity do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. Food insecurity in other hand is a situation of limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally and adequate and safe food or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in social acceptable ways. According to the united states department of agriculture (USDA). Food security incorporate a measure of resilience to future disruption or unavailability of food supply due to the various risk factors including drought, shipping disruption, fuel shortages, economic instability and wars. In the year 2011-2013 an estimated 842 million people were suffering from chronic hunger. The food and agriculture organization of the United Nations or FAO, identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access, utilization and stability. The united nations (UN) recognize the right of food in the declaration of human right. The 1996 world submit on food security declares that food should not be used for political or economic pressure. According to the international center for trade and sustainable development, failed agriculture market regulation and lack of anti-dumping mechanism cause much of the world’s food scarcity and malnutrition